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Review Article

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):010801-010801-6. doi:10.1115/1.4030421.

Nanotechnology, which is being employed in all areas of technology, also finds application in the sector of forensics. It is evident that utilization of this technology will help the criminologists to solve the criminal mystery with greater accuracy and pace. Fingerprinting technology, deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) analysis, forensic material testing, etc., are some technical zones that are being invaded by nanoscience. This is a brief review about the applications of nanotechnology in forensics. It also provides insight to the future prospects of this amalgamation of technologies, leading to better scientific analysis of evidence suitable for legal proceedings.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011001-011001-9. doi:10.1115/1.4030787.

A transport model of magnetic drug carrier particles (MDCPs) in permeable microvessel based on statistical mechanics has been developed to investigate capture efficiency (CE) of MDCPs at the tumor position. Casson-Newton two-fluid model is used to describe the flow of blood in permeable microvessel and the Darcy model is used to characterize the permeable nature of the microvessel. Coupling effect between the interstitial fluid flow and blood flow is considered by using the Starling assumptions in the model. The Boltzmann equation is used to depict the transport of MDCPs in microvessel. The elastic collision effect between MDCPs and red blood cell is incorporated. The distribution of blood flow velocity, blood pressure, interstitial fluid pressure, and MDCPs has been obtained through the coupling solutions of the model. Based on these, the CE of the MDCPs is obtained. Present results show that the CE of the MDCPs will increase with the enhancement of the size of the MDCPs and the external magnetic field intensity. In addition, when the permeability of the inner wall is better and the inlet blood flow velocity is slow, the CE of the MDCPs will increase as well. Close agreements between the predictions and experimental results demonstrate the capability of the model in modeling transport of MDCPs in permeable microvessel.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011002-011002-5. doi:10.1115/1.4030920.

Nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template is continuously investigated since it is vital for producing a variety of promised nanomaterial. In this study, two steps anodization of aluminum working electrode was carried out in H2SO4 under control of temperature at 17 °C and revolution rate 150 rpm using thermostatic cooling system and revolution control mechanical stirrer, respectively. Different times 15 mins, 30 mins, and 45 mins of first anodization were used and followed by electrolytic detachment for 1 min. Then, second anodization was applied for 10 mins, 20 mins, 30 mins, and 40 mins. Each sample of the prepared nanoporous AAO was used as working electrode into the electrolytic coloring cell containing coloring salt solution of 40 g/l CuSO4. Copper ions were deposited into the porous layer by AC current with gentle agitation using magnetic stirrer. The surface was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope device (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), microhardness, corrosion resistance, and optical characteristics. The optical characteristics and reflectivity measurements revealed that the prepared selective coating is promised for solar heating systems and solar water heaters (SWH).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011003-011003-7. doi:10.1115/1.4030768.

Porous silicon (PS) has become the focus of attention in upgrading silicon for optoelectronics. In this work, various structures were produced depending on the formation parameters by photo-electrochemical etching (PECE) process of n- and p-type silicon wafer at different time durations (5–90 mins) and different current densities (5, 15, and 20 mA/cm2) for each set of time durations. Diode lasers of 405 nm, 473 nm, and 532 nm wavelengths, each 50 mW power, were used to illuminate the surface of the samples during the etching process. The results showed that controlled porous layers were achieved by using blue laser, giving uniform structure which can make it possible to dispense with expensive methods of patterning the silicon.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011004-011004-8. doi:10.1115/1.4031062.

Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) involves the localization of drug loaded iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) around the malignant tissue using external magnetic field for therapeutic purposes. The present in vitro study reports the visualization and motion of curcumin loaded IONPs (CU-IONPs) around the target site inside a microcapillary (500 × 500 μm2 square cross section), in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. Application of magnetic field leads to transportation and aggregation of CU-IONPs toward the target site inside the capillary adjacent to the magnet. The localization/aggregation of CU-IONPs at the target site shows strong dependence on the strength of the applied magnetic field and flow rate of ferrofluid through the capillary. Such an in vitro study offers a viable for optimization and design of MDT systems for in vivo applications.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011005-011005-5. doi:10.1115/1.4031385.

We report a facile fabrication of a high-performance supercapacitor (SC) using a flexible cellulose-based composite film of polyaniline (PANI), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), and silver nanowires (AgNWs). The flexibility, high capacitive behavior, cyclic stability, and enhanced rate capability of the entire device make it a good candidate for flexible and wearable SCs. Our results demonstrate that a capacitance as high as 73.4 F/g (1.6 F/cm2) at a discharge rate of 1.1 A/g is achieved. In addition, the SC shows a power density up to 468.8 W/kg and an energy density up to 5.1 Wh/kg. The flexibility of the composite film is owing to the binding effect of cellulose fibers as well as AgNWs. The superb electrochemical performance of the device is found to be mainly attributed to the synergistic effect between PANI/RGO/AgNWs ternary in a cushiony cellulose scaffold and porous structure of the composite.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011006-011006-6. doi:10.1115/1.4031472.

Thin glass-fiber/epoxy-composite sheets filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are manufactured to make lightweight honeycomb sandwich microwave absorbers. A multilayered sandwich structure of thin nanocomposite sheets and honeycomb spacers have been also proposed and developed to work in a wide frequency range. The nanocomposite sheets are prepared from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 wt. % of MWCNTs. A commercially available simulation software computer simulation technology (CST) microwave studio was used for the designing and development of radar absorbing structure (RAS) composed of MWCNTs/glass-fiber/epoxy-composite sheets and honeycomb cores. The measurements of return loss (RL) from sandwich structures with 5 mm and 20 mm honeycomb cores in the Ku band (11–17 GHz) show that maximum RL is achieved at 11 GHz and 16 GHz, respectively. The stacking of three nanocomposite sheets and three 5 mm-thick honeycomb spacers produced a wide band microwave absorber with −10 dB RL over 9 GHz bandwidth.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011007-011007-6. doi:10.1115/1.4031856.

An in vitro cell culture system is developed for studying the uptake characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) by endothelial cells under shear stress. Results show that the smaller polystyrene nanospheres are uptaken more than larger nanospheres for sizes ranging from 100 nm to 500 nm for 12, 24, and 48 hrs delivery times. While the result is similar to that found in static cultures, the observed trend is different from NP delivery behaviors to a simple glass surface in a flow, where no clear size dependence was observed because of repulsive electrostatic force on marginating NPs. The trend is also opposite to the behavior found in another study of the adhesion of labeled particles onto endothelial cells in whole blood flow. The comparison shows that the reduced zeta potential of NPs in a serum-containing cell medium and particle removal by cells results in reduced repulsive electrostatic force on marginating NPs. Consequently, the uptake behaviors are dominated by Brownian diffusion and cell membrane deformation process, which favor the uptake of NPs with reduced sizes.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):011008-011008-6. doi:10.1115/1.4032015.

The new method for metal oxide nanopowder production is proposed. It is the evaporation–condensation using a focused microwave radiation. The source of microwaves is technological gyrotron with frequency of 24 GHz and power up to 7 kW with the energy density flux of 13 kW/cm2. Radiation was focused on the layer of powder of the treated material to ensure its evaporation, subsequent condensation of vapor in the gas stream, and deposition of particles on the water-cooled surface. Deposited powders consist of particles whose sizes are in the range of 20 nm to 1 μm. The powder consists of particles having different shapes—close to spherical shape as well as octahedral, which indicates that the mechanism of particles formation is “vapor–liquid–crystal” as well as “vapor–crystal.” The maximum evaporation rate was 100 g/hr. The proposed approach is original and extends the possible methods of producing nanoparticles.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):014501-014501-5. doi:10.1115/1.4029916.

Nanocomposite materials filled with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having three types of structures, i.e., longer (200 μm), shorter (20–50 μm), and aminated (20–50 μm), are manufactured for microwave absorption (MA) in 11–17 GHz frequency range. Microstructure, dielectric permittivity, direct current (DC) electrical conductivity, and MA properties of the MWCNTs–epoxy nanocomposite were investigated. A correlation has been developed between the structure (aspect ratio and surface functionality) of MWCNTs, electrical conductivity of the composite, and MA (return loss (RL)). E-glass/epoxy composite filled with longer carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has shown higher RL as compared to that of other two nanocomposites. The measurements have shown that the magnitude of RL of microwaves depends strongly on the structure of MWCNTs used in the composite. Furthermore, the effect of synthesis route followed for the manufacturing of nanocomposite on its electrical conductivity and microwave absorbing properties is also investigated; three different approaches were followed to manufacture CNT/epoxy nanocomposites from longer CNTs (200 μm).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Book Review

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015;6(1):016501-016501-1. doi:10.1115/1.4031814.

REVIEWED BY PROFESSOR VIROJ WIWANITKI1

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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