The advances of nanotechnology are benefiting various engineering fields, such as manufacturing, transportation, communication, energy, food, and environment control. Harnessing nanomaterials and nanostructures is already proven to be a great success in many new products useful for automobiles, solar cells, light-weight composites, smart textiles, flexible sensors and sensor arrays, displays, wireless communication devices, etc. Besides, as most of the human cells, virus, antibodies, and proteins have dimensions in the nanometer range, nanotechnology has been utilized for healthcare. Nanotechnology offers numerous promising possibilities to significantly improve medical diagnosis and therapy, leading to an affordable higher quality of life for everyone. In recent years, more and more efforts are being made to explore the engineering and medical applications of nanotechnology, and a main trend in these research activities is converging nanotechnology with biotechnology and information technology.