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Research Paper

Potassium Ion Sensing With Nanowire Electrodes on a Flexible Substrate for Early Detection of Myocardial Ischemia

[+] Author and Article Information
Vasuda Ramachandran

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

Hargsoon Yoon

Center of Wireless Nanosensors and Systems, University of Arkansas, 700 Research Center Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701

Vijay K. Varadan

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701; Center of Wireless Nanosensors and Systems, University of Arkansas, 700 Research Center Boulevard, Fayetteville, AR 72701; Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72701

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 1(1), 011008 (Nov 04, 2009) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000432 History: Received September 29, 2009; Revised October 05, 2009; Published November 04, 2009; Online November 04, 2009

An increase in extracellular potassium levels is a physiological sign of myocardial ischemia and timely sensing with an implantable potassium sensing biosensor could play a significant role in detecting and expediting care. In this paper, unique fabrication techniques for both planar and nanowire structured gold microelectrodes are described along with data showing the enhanced charge transfer capabilities of the nanowire design. Optimization is required for the electrodeposition of polypyrrole onto gold nanowires and processing details along with characterization data are provided for both the polypyrrole layer and ion selective membrane. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that the polypyrrole coated gold nanowire electrodes provide stable charge transfer, showing the potential as a potassium sensing device for the early detection of myocardial ischemia applications.

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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) Cross-sectional schematic of sensor design and (b) transport mechanism across a ISM layer

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Figure 2

Calculated response time for various thickness of ISM membranes

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Figure 3

Fabrication steps for the potassium sensing electrodes: steps (a) through (d) outlines the LATB process. The device is passivated with SU-8 (e), then, the polypyrrole film is electrodeposited and covered with a PVC/valinomycin ISM (f).

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Figure 4

(a) SEM image of Au nanowires and (b) microscope image of polypyrrole coated nanowire electrode array

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Figure 5

Image of potassium sensing probe with nanowire electrodes

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Figure 6

CV of planar versus nanowires gold electrodes in PBS

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Figure 7

Impedance analysis of planar versus nanowire electrodes

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Figure 8

Potassium sensing calibration curve for polypyrrole coated electrodes with valinomycin

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