0
Research Paper

Nanoclay Based Composite Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Avinash H. Ambre, Dinesh R. Katti

Department of Civil Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105

Kalpana S. Katti1

Department of Civil Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105kalpana.katti@ndsu.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 1(3), 031013 (Aug 27, 2010) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002149 History: Received June 02, 2010; Revised July 06, 2010; Published August 27, 2010; Online August 27, 2010

Scaffolds based on chitosan/polygalacturonic acid (ChiPgA) complex containing montmorillonite (MMT) clay modified with 5-aminovaleric acid were prepared using freeze-drying technique. The MMT clay was introduced to improve mechanical properties of the scaffold. The microstructure of the scaffolds containing the modified MMT clay was influenced by the incorporation of nanoclays. The MTT assay also indicated that the number of osteoblast cells in ChiPgA scaffolds containing the modified clay was comparable to ChiPgA scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite known for its osteoconductive properties. Overall, the ChiPgA composite scaffolds were found to be biocompatible. This was also indicated by the scanning electron microscopy images of the ChiPgA composite scaffolds seeded with human osteoblast cells. Photoacoustic–Fourier transform infrared (PA-FTIR) experiments on the ChiPgA composite scaffolds indicated formation of a polyelectrolyte complex between chitosan and polygalacturonic acid. PA-FTIR studies also showed that the MMT clay modified with 5-aminovaleric acid was successfully incorporated in the ChiPgA based scaffolds. Swelling studies on ChiPgA composite scaffolds showed the swelling ability of the scaffolds that indicated that the cells and the nutrients would be able to reach the interior parts of the scaffolds. In addition to this, the ChiPgA scaffolds exhibited porosity greater than 90% as appropriate for scaffolds used in tissue engineering studies. High porosity facilitates the nutrient transport throughout the scaffold and also plays a role in the development of adequate vasculature throughout the scaffold. Compressive mechanical tests on the scaffolds showed that the ChiPgA composite scaffolds had compressive elastic moduli in the range of 4–6 MPa and appear to be affected by the high porosity of the scaffolds. Thus, the ChiPgA composite scaffolds containing MMT clay modified with 5-aminovaleric acid are biocompatible. Also, the ChiPgA scaffolds containing the modified MMT clay appears to satisfy some of the basic requirements of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Comparative plot of results obtained from MTT assay on ChiPgA based scaffolds

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

PA-FTIR spectra of ChiPgA based scaffolds: (a) in the 4000–400 cm−1 region and (b) in the 1925–430 cm−1 region

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

SEM image of (a) dry ChiPgA scaffold, (b) dry ChiPgAHAP scaffold, (c) dry ChiPgAMMT scaffold, and (d) dry ChiPgAHAPMMT scaffold

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

SEM image of (a) ChiPgA scaffold seeded with human osteoblasts, (b) ChiPgAHAP scaffold seeded with human osteoblasts, (c) ChiPgAMMT scaffold seeded with human osteoblasts, and (d) ChiPgAHAPMMT scaffold seeded with human osteoblasts

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Comparative plot of results obtained from swelling studies on ChiPgA based scaffolds

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Comparative plot showing the percentage porosity of ChiPgA based scaffolds

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 7

Typical stress-strain curve obtained from compression test on ChiPgA based scaffolds

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 8

Comparative plot of the compressive elastic moduli of the ChiPgA based scaffolds

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In