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Research Paper

A Novel Method to Attenuate Protein Adsorption Using Combinations of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Grafts and Piezoelectric Actuation

[+] Author and Article Information
Po-Ying Yeh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4, Canada

Jayachandran N. Kizhakkedathu1

Department of Chemistry and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4, Canadajay@pathology.ubc.ca

Mu Chiao1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4, Canadamuchiao@mech.ubc.ca

1

Corresponding authors.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 1(4), 041010 (Oct 29, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002532 History: Received July 26, 2010; Revised August 10, 2010; Published October 29, 2010; Online October 29, 2010

An antifouling treatment based on the combined effects of grafted polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers and the application of vibration is reported. A gold-coated lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric composite was grafted with PEG used as a model substrate. The PEG grafted surfaces were thoroughly characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In vitro protein adsorption onto PEG coated surfaces was studied with and without the application of vibration. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption onto PEG grafted surfaces followed a similar pattern as reported in literature. However, when piezoelectric vibration was applied on the PEG grafted surface, BSA desorption was observed. At very low graft densities, the vibration significantly reduced the BSA adsorption compared with high PEG graft densities. Theoretical calculations showed that the thickness of PEG layer on the surface was affecting vibration induced protein desorption.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

(a) XPS spectra (binding energy from 0 eV to 600 eV) for (1) control (bare surface) and surfaces incubated in (2) 2×10−7 mg/ml, (3) 2×10−5 mg/ml, (4) 2×10−3 mg/ml, (5) 1 mg/ml, and (6) 6 mg/ml PEG initial concentration solutions. (b) Variation of atomic percentages of elements C, O, and Au on surfaces incubated in different mPEG-SH initial concentrations. The increase in atomic percentages of elements C and O and decrease of element Au indicate that PEG is grafted on the gold surface.

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Figure 2

High resolution C 1s peak scan of (1) control (bare surface) and surfaces incubated in (2) 2×10−7 mg/ml, (3) 2×10−5 mg/ml, (4) 2×10−3 mg/ml, (5) 1 mg/ml, and (6) 6 mg/ml PEG initial concentration solutions. The increase in C–O and decrease in C–C peak intensity is shown with the increase of mPEG-SH initial concentration.

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Figure 3

(a) The log-log plot of integral intensity of peak Au 4f1/2 with PEG initial concentration and (b) effect of mPEG-SH concentration on the thickness of PEG grafted on the surface

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Figure 4

The infrared spectra of PEG grafted surfaces (with gold-coated PZT substrate), incubated in (1) 6 mg/ml, (2) 0.1 mg/ml, and (3) 2×10−2 mg/ml PEG initial concentration solutions, measured by ATR-FTIR. The C–O–C and –CH2 peaks are characteristic peaks of PEG. The intensity of these peaks increased with increase in PEG grafting concentration.

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Figure 5

BSA relative quantity on surfaces incubated in different PEG initial concentration solutions with or without application of vibration.  ∗ indicates significant statistic differences (p<0.05).

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Figure 6

(a) Calculated protein-surface interaction energy between a BSA molecule and gold surface grafted with or without PEG and (b) the illustration of the protein interaction with surface grafted PEG and surface charge when applied vibration

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Figure 7

The Nyquist plot of PZT plates (gold-coated PZT, PEG grafted on gold-coated PZT plates). The measurement performed by a three electrodes setting in PBS. The curve is fitted by the inset equivalent circuit. The value of Rel signifies the resistance of electrolyte, Rct and CPE signify the surface resistance (charge transfer) and capacitance of working electrode, respectively.

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