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Research Paper

Biocompatibility and Delivery of NGF by Hematite Nanotubes for Differentiation of PC12 Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
Linfeng Chen, Jining Xie

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

J. Yancey

Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72401

Malathi Srivatsan1

Department of Biological Sciences, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR 72401msrivatsan@astate.edu

Vijay K. Varadan1

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701vjvesm@uark.edu

1

Corresponding authors.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 1(4), 041014 (Nov 01, 2010) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002746 History: Received July 20, 2010; Revised September 09, 2010; Published November 01, 2010; Online November 01, 2010

This report discusses the compatibility of hematite nanotubes with PC12 cells and the use of these hematite nanotubes to deliver nerve growth factor (NGF) for the differentiation and growth of PC12 cells. The hematite nanotubes used in this work were synthesized using template-assisted thermal decomposition method, followed by dissolving the template. The synthesized hematite nanotubes have a diameter around 200 nm and an average length of about 10μm, and they have a low coercivity (about 10 Oe) at room temperature. To study the biocompatibility of hematite nanotubes, PC12 cells were cultured in the presence of hematite nanotubes. Neurite (axon and dendrite) outgrowth, formation of morphological connections, and close contacts between PC12 cells and hematite nanotubes unequivocally confirmed the biocompatibility of hematite nanotubes. The efficiency of hematite nanotubes to bind with NGF and the ability of the NGF-incorporated hematite nanotubes to release the bound NGF were also investigated. It is found that NGF-incorporated hematite nanotubes enabled the differentiation of PC12 cells into neurons, and the filopodia extending from growth cones were in close proximity to the NGF-incorporated hematite nanotubes, at times appearing to extend toward or into them. These observations indicate that hematite nanotubes can be used as a vehicle for NGF delivery. This research paves the way toward developing potential treatments using magnetic nanotubes with incorporated growth factors for neurodegenerative disorders and injuries to the nervous system in the future.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

SEM and TEM images of the synthesized nanotubes. (a) SEM image and (b) TEM image.

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Figure 2

The XRD pattern of synthesized hematite nanotubes

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Figure 3

Magnetization curve of hematite nanotubes

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Figure 4

Optical microscope images of a neuron cell and hematite nanotubes on a glass coverslip. (a) Microscope image showing the major morphological features of a neuron. (b) Enlargement of the part enclosed by a rectangular in (a).

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Figure 5

AFM images of a growing neurite with hematite nanotubes. (a) Edge effect-enhanced image and (b) three-dimensional image.

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Figure 6

SEM images of hematite nanotubes attached to the surface of a neurite. (a) SEM image showing the cell body with neuritis. (b) Enlargement of the part enclosed by a rectangular inset in (a).

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Figure 7

SEM image of an apparent synaptic connection between two PC 12 cells differentiated neurons

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Figure 8

Growth cone interaction with hematite nanotubes coupled to NGF. (a) Interaction between a growth cone and NGF-incorporated hematite nanotubes. (b) Enlargement of the inset in (a).

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