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Research Papers

Magnetic Nanotubes Influence the Response of Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons to Alternating Magnetic Fields

[+] Author and Article Information
Jining Xie, Linfeng Chen

Nanomaterials and nanotubes Research Laboratory, College of Engineering,  University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

Vijay K. Varadan

Nanomaterials and nanotubes Research Laboratory, College of Engineering,  University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701vjvesm@uark.edu

Sahitya Chetan

Department of Biological Sciences,  Arkansas State University, State University, AR 72467

Malathi Srivatsan

Department of Biological Sciences,  Arkansas State University, State University, AR 72467msrivatsan@astate.edu

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 2(3), 031009 (Jan 13, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004305 History: Received April 28, 2011; Revised May 13, 2011; Published January 13, 2012; Online January 13, 2012

Magnetic nanotubes hold the potential for neuroscience applications because of the feasibility of controlling the orientation or movement of magnetic nanotubes and their ability to deliver chemicals or biomolecules by an external magnetic field, which can facilitate directed growth of neurites. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effects of laminin treated magnetic nanotubes and external alternating magnetic fields on the growth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in cell culture. Magnetic nanotubes were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized to confirm their hollow structure, the hematite and maghemite phases, and the magnetic properties. DRG neurons were cultured in the presence of laminin coupled magnetic nanotubes under alternating magnetic fields. Electron microscopy showed a close interaction between magnetic nanotubes and the growing neurites. Phase contrast microscopy revealed live growing neurons suggesting that the combination of the presence of magnetic nanotubes and the alternating magnetic field were tolerated by DRG neurons. The synergistic effects, from both laminin treated magnetic nanotubes and the applied magnetic field on the survival, growth, and electrical activities of the DRG neurons, are currently being investigated.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

SEM micrographs of magnetic nanotubes (the insets are low magnification pictures. Scale bar: 200 nm.) (a) Hematite nanotubes and (b) maghemite nanotubes.

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Figure 2

TEM images of magnetic nanotubes. (a) A nanotube with both ends opened. Two arrows indicate the cease of dissolution from both ends resulting in a diaphragm. (b) A nanocup with one open end. Scale bar: 100 nm.

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Figure 3

XRD patterns of (a) pure hematite nanotubes; (b) a mixture of hematite and maghemite nanotubes; and (c) pure maghemite nanotubes

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Figure 5

Phase contrast microscope pictures of cultured neurons: (a), (d), and (g), the CON samples (neurons cultured without nanotubes); (b), (e), and (h), the HNT samples (neurons cultured in presence of laminin treated hematite nanotubes); (c), (f), and (i), the MNT samples (neurons cultured in presence of laminin treated maghemite nanotubes); (a)(c) condition I (no field, 32 h); (d)–(f) condition II (15 h no field + 17 h in the field); (g) and-(i) condition III (32 h in the field). (Magnification: 100×.) Figures are described in the text.

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Figure 8

A neurite extended and branched in presence of laminin treated nanotubes (areas in dotted circles). Scale bar: 1 μm.

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Figure 7

SEM micrographs show interactions between neurites and magnetic nanotubes. (a) A neurite extended over hematite nanotubes. (b) Two filopodia contact nanotubes. (c) A branch occurred near a nanotube agglomerate. (d) Neurites interact with somewhat aligned maghemite nanotubes.

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Figure 6

An SEM micrograph of a neuron cultured in the presence of hematite nanotubes (HNT sample) under condition III. Scale bar: 10 μm

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Figure 4

Hysteresis loops of (a) hematite nanotubes; and (b) maghemite nanotubes. The inset at the upper left corner shows the enlargement of the hysteresis loop at the magnetic field range close to the saturation field. The inset at the lower right corner illustrates an enlargement of the hysteresis loop near the origin.

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