Cardiovascular diseases, especially myocardial ischemia, have been a leading cause of death worldwide for several decades. Despite major advances in the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available for the clinical management of patients with cardiovascular disease, significant limitations remain. The use of very small molecular particles has recently emerged as a novel technique for diagnostic imaging and treatment of a variety of disease processes and can be broadly classified under the category Nanomedicine. Many diagnostic and therapeutic modalities based on these small molecular particles have become part of routine clinical practice, such as liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of fungal infections and iron nanoparticles for imaging liver tumors. In this review, we discuss the potential applications of nanomedicine in the management of cardiovascular diseases.