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Technology Reviews

Bacterial Nanocellulose for Medicine Regenerative

[+] Author and Article Information
Gabriel Molina de Olyveira, Ligia Maria Manzine Costa

 Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas CCNH-UFABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166, Santo André-SP, Brazil, 09291-210

Pierre Basmaji

 Innovatec’s–Biotechnology Research and Development, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, 13566-610

Lauro Xavier Filho

 Laboratorio de Produtos Naturais e Biotecnologia, IPT, UNIT, Aracaju-Sergipe, Brazil, 49.032-490

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 2(3), 034001 (Jan 20, 2012) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004181 History: Received March 11, 2011; Accepted April 12, 2011; Published January 20, 2012; Online January 20, 2012

Bacterial cellulose (BC) has established to be a remarkably versatile biomaterial and can be used in a wide variety of applied scientific endeavours, especially for medical devices. Nanocellulose, such as that produced by the bacteria Gluconacetobacter xylinus (bacterial cellulose, BC), is an emerging biomaterial with great potential in flexible radar absorbing materials, in scaffold for tissue regeneration, water treatment, and medical applications. Bacterial cellulose nanofibril bundles have excellent intrinsic properties due to their high crystallinity, which is higher than that generally recorded for macroscale natural fibers and is of the same order as the elastic modulus of glass fibers. Compared with cellulose from plants, BC also possesses higher water holding capacity, higher degree of polymerization (up to 8000), and a finer weblike network. In addition, BC is produced as a highly hydrated and relatively pure cellulose membrane, and therefore no chemical treatments are needed to remove lignin and hemicelluloses, as is the case for plant cellulose. Because of these characteristics, biomedical devices recently have gained a significant amount of attention because of an increased interest in tissue-engineered products for both wound care and the regeneration of damaged or diseased organs. Hydrophilic bacterial cellulose fibers of an average diameter of 50 nm are produced by the bacterium Acetobacter xylinum, using a fermentation process. The architecture of BC materials can be engineered over length scales ranging from nano to macro by controlling the biofabrication process. Moreover, the nanostructure and morphological similarities with collagen make BC attractive for cell immobilization and cell support. This review describes the fundamentals, purification, and morphological investigation of bacterial cellulose. Besides, microbial cellulose modification and how to increase the compatibility between cellulosic surfaces and a variety of plastic materials have been reported. Furthermore, provides deep knowledge of current and future applications of bacterial cellulose and their nanocomposites especially in the medical field.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Chemical structure of cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum

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Figure 2

SEM images from Nanoskin® [39]

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Figure 3

Diabetic Ulcer varicose treatment using Nanoskin®. After 3 months we can see the complete healing [39].

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Figure 4

Diabetic Ulcer, after 7 days was completely healing with treatment using Nanoskin® [39]

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Figure 5

SEM images of BC/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites [51]

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