Polymeric vascular grafts hold great promise for vascular reconstruction, but the lack of endothelial cells renders these grafts susceptible to intimal hyperplasia and restenosis, precluding widespread clinical applications. The purpose of this study is to establish a stable endothelium on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced suppression of the cell adhesion inhibitor SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with scrambled siRNA as a control or SHP-1 specific siRNA. Treated cells were seeded onto fibronectin-coated ePTFE scaffolds and exposed to a physiological range of pulsatile fluid shear stresses for 1 h in a variable-width parallel plate flow chamber. Retention of cells was measured and compared between various shear stress levels and between groups treated with scrambled siRNA and SHP-1 specific siRNA. HUVECs seeded on ePTFE membrane exhibited shear stress-dependent retention. Exposure to physiological shear stress induced a reduction in the retention of scrambled siRNA treated cells from 100% to 85% at 1 h. Increased shear stress further reduced retention of scrambled siRNA treated cells to 55% at 1 h. SHP-1 knockdown mediated by siRNA enhanced endothelial cell retention from approximately 60% to 85% after 1 h of exposure to average shear stresses in the range of . This study demonstrates that siRNA-mediated gene silencing may be an effective strategy for improving the retention of endothelial cells within vascular grafts.