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Research Paper

Glucose Driven Nanobiopower Cells for Biomedical Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Pratyush Rai, Jining Xie, Vijay K. Varadan

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

Thang Ho, Jamie A. Hestekin

Ralph E. Martin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 1(2), 021009 (May 14, 2010) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001494 History: Received February 13, 2010; Revised March 05, 2010; Published May 14, 2010; Online May 14, 2010

Power supply is an important aspect of micronanobiomedical devices. Implantable devices are required to stay inside of the body for longer period of time to provide continuous monitoring, detection, and therapeutics. The constricted areas of the human body, accessed by these devices, imply that the power source should not increase the payload significantly. Conventional on-board power sources are big, as compared with the device themselves, or involve wire-outs. Both provisions are liable to develop complications for sensor/actuator implant packaging. A plausible approach can be innovative solutions for sustainable bio-energy harvesting. Research studies have reported feasibility of miniature power sources, running on redox reactions. The device design, reported in this study, is a combination of nano-engineered composites and flexible thin film processing to achieve high density packaging. Of which, the end goal is production of energy for sensor applications. Both the bio-electrodes were successfully functionalized by amide bond cross-linkage between the carbon nanotube surface and the enzyme molecules: catalase and glucose oxidase for cathode and anode, respectively. The nanocomposite based biopower cell was evaluated as a steady power supply across the physiological range of glucose concentration. The power cell was able to deliver a steady power of 3.2 nW at 85 mV for glucose concentrations between 3 mM and 8 mM. Electron microscopy scanning of the functionalized electrode surface and spectroscopic evaluation of nanotube surface were used for evaluation of the biofunctionalization technique. Cyclic voltametric (CV) scans were performed on the cathodic and anodic half cells to corroborate bioactivity and qualitatively evaluate the power cell output against the redox peaks on the CV scans. The importance of these results has been discussed and conclusions have been drawn pertaining to further miniaturization (scale down) of the cell.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

The microwave CVD synthesis system at NRL

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Figure 2

AMI MSP-485 screen printing machine

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Figure 3

Power cell with schematic: the screen printed back electrodes with carbon-Nafion composite

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Figure 4

SEM micrograph of CNT-Nafion composite functionalized with glucose oxidase, 5.0 kV acceleration voltage, and 15,000× magnification

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Figure 5

Cyclic voltammetric scans (only forward scans) for glucose oxidase functionalized anode (2.06×2.06 mm2), scan rate of of 20 mV/s

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Figure 6

Cyclic voltametric scans (only forward scans) for catalase functionalized cathode (2.06×2.06 mm2), scan rate of 20 mV/s

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Figure 7

Output voltage for nanocomposite biopower cell, electrode size 2.06×2.06 mm2, and external load of 2.2 MΩ

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Figure 8

Output power density for nanocomposite biopower cell, electrode size 2.06×2.06 mm2, and external load of 2.2 MΩ

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