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Research Paper

Development of Carbon Nanotube Based Through-Silicon Vias

[+] Author and Article Information
Bruce C. Kim

 University of Alabama, 101 Houser Hall, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487bruce.kim@ieee.org

Sukeshwar Kannan, Anurag Gupta

 University of Alabama, 101 Houser Hall, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487

Falah Mohammed

 AN-Najah National University, PO Box 7, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine

Byoungchul Ahn

 Yeungnam University, 214–1, Dae-dong, Gyeingsan-si 712–749 South Korea

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 1(2), 021012 (May 17, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001537 History: Received March 30, 2010; Revised March 30, 2010; Published May 17, 2010; Online May 17, 2010

The design and development of reliable 3D integrated systems require high performance interconnects, which in turn are largely dependent on the choice of filler materials used in through-silicon vias (TSVs). Copper, tungsten, and poly-silicon have been explored as filler materials; however, issues such as thermal incompatibility, electromigration, and high resistivity are still a bottleneck. In this paper, we investigate single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as a prospective filler material for TSVs and have provided an analysis of CNT based TSVs for package and chip interconnects. The interconnects are fundamental bottlenecks to achieving high performance and reliability. We have provided electrical modeling and performed simulations on TSVs with copper and carbon nanotubes. The results from the CNT based TSVs were greatly superior to those from the conventional vias with copper.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic showing TSV filled with SW-CNT bundles

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Figure 2

Equivalent electrical model of TSV (11-12)

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Figure 3

Equivalent electrical model of SW-CNT (13)

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Figure 4

Equivalent electrical model of SW-CNT TSV

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Figure 12

Two TSVs with CNT bundles as 3D interconnects

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Figure 5

(a) S11 parameters of Cu and SW-CNT TSV, (b) S21 parameters of Cu-TSV and SW-CNT TSV, (c) TDR waveform of SW-CNT TSV for time domain analysis with dimensions as in case study 1, and (d) eye diagram of SW-CNT TSV

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Figure 6

(a) Analysis of S11 parameters of Cu-TSV and SW-CNT TSV, (b) analysis of S21 parameters of Cu-TSV and SW-CNT TSV, (c) TDR waveform of SW-CNT TSV, and (d) TDR waveform of Cu TSV for time domain analysis with optimum dimensions as in case study 4

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Figure 7

(a) Eye diagram of Cu-TSV and (b) eye diagram of SW-CNT with the dimensions from case study 4

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Figure 8

S11 and S21 parameters of SW-CNT TSV versus the number of CNTs in one bundle

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Figure 9

S11 and S21 parameters of both Cu-TSV and SW-CNT TSV versus change in via dimensions

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Figure 10

Flowchart depicting top-down and bottom-up approaches

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Figure 11

Setup for laser direct write system (21)

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