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Research Papers

MicroCT Imaging and In Vivo Temperature Elevations in Implanted Prostatic Tumors in Laser Photothermal Therapy Using Gold Nanorods

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Attaluri

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250

H. Cai

Department of Physics,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250

E. Lalanne

Center for Advanced Studies
in Photonics Research,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250;
Department of Physics,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250

C. Bieberich

Department of Biology,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250

R. Ma

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250

A. M. Johnson

Center for Advanced Studies
in Photonics Research,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250;
Department of Physics,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250

L. Zhu

Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
Baltimore, MD 21250
e-mail: zliang@umbc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 23, 2012; final manuscript received May 24, 2012; published online September 24, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Jung-Chih Chiao.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 3(2), 021003 (Sep 24, 2012) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007161 History: Received March 23, 2012; Revised May 24, 2012

In this study, in vivo animal experiments are performed on implanted xenograph prostatic tumors in nude mice to investigate enhanced laser energy absorption in the tumors by an intratumoral injection of gold nanorod solutions. In vivo temperature mapping of the tumors during laser photothermal therapy has shown the feasibility of elevating tumor temperatures higher than 50 °C using only 0.1 ml nanorod solution and a low laser irradiance of 1.6 W/cm2 incident on the tumor surface. The temperature profile suggests that normal tumor tissue still absorbs some amount of the laser energy without nanorod presence; however, the injected nanorods ensure that almost all the laser energy is absorbed and confined to the targeted tumors. The inverse relationship between the temperature elevations and the tumor size implies a relatively uniform spreading of the nanorods to the entire tumor, which is also shown by microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging analyses. The feasibility of detecting 250 OD gold nanorod solution injected to the tumors is demonstrated via a high resolution microCT imaging system. Compared to other nanostructures, the gold nanorods used in this study do not accumulate surrounding the injection site. The relatively uniform deposition of the nanorods in the tumors observed by the microCT scans can be helpful in future study in simplifying theoretical simulation of temperature elevations in tumors during laser photothermal therapy.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Steady state temperature elevation profiles in tumors for two different concentrations of gold nanorod solutions. Temperature mappings are along two tumor paths shown on the right bottom of the figure.

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Fig. 4

Maximum temperatures recorded in the tumor centers for two concentrations of gold nanorod solutions during the laser experiment. * represents statistical significance of difference with a p value <0.05.

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Fig. 5

The relationship between the maximum temperature elevation and the tumor size is represented by symbols. The lines are the linear curve fittings with negative slopes.

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Fig. 7

Percentages of the occupied nanorods distribution within individual pixel index number ranges for the tumor group with gold nanorods and the tumors in the control group.

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Fig. 8

The inverse relationship between the average pixel index number and the tumor size. The line is the linear curve fitting with a negative slope.

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Fig. 6

Gray-scale microCT image of one slice of a tumor with nanorod injection (up-left) and a control tumor (bottom-left). The right side profiles show how the pixel index number varies alone a spatial line.

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Fig. 2

The SkyScan 1172 microCT imaging system. The inset shows the inner chamber where a sample container is used to hold the specimen.

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Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the laser heating experiment

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