0
Research Papers

Solar Energy Harvesting Using Nanofluids-Based Concentrating Solar Collector

[+] Author and Article Information
Himanshu Tyagi

e-mail: himanshu.tyagi@iitrpr.ac.in
School of Mechanical,
Materials and Energy Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Ropar,
Rupnagar, Punjab 140001, India

Patrick E. Phelan

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287-6106

Todd P. Otanicar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Tulsa,
Tulsa, OK 74104

Harjit Singh

School of Engineering and Design,
Brunel University,
Uxbridge, UB8 3PH, UK

Robert A. Taylor

School of Mechanical and
Manufacturing Engineering,
The University of New South Wales,
Gate 14, Barker Street,
Kensington, Sydney, 2052, Australia

1Corresponding author.

Paper presented at the 2012 3rd Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer International Conference (MNHMT2012), Atlanta, GA, Mar. 3–6, 2012. Manuscript received March 12, 2012; final manuscript received August 10, 2012; published online January 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 3(3), 031003 (Jan 18, 2013) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007387 History: Received March 12, 2012; Revised August 10, 2012

Dispersing trace amounts of nanoparticles into common base-fluids has a significant impact on the optical as well as thermophysical properties of the base-fluid. This characteristic can be utilized to effectively capture and transport solar radiation. Enhancement of the solar irradiance absorption capacity leads to a higher heat transfer rate resulting in more efficient heat transfer. This paper attempts to introduce the idea of harvesting solar radiant energy through usage of nanofluid-based concentrating parabolic solar collectors (NCPSC). In order to theoretically analyze the NCPSC, it has been mathematically modeled, and the governing equations have been numerically solved using finite difference technique. The results of the model were compared with the experimental results of conventional concentrating parabolic solar collectors under similar conditions. It was observed that while maintaining the same external conditions (such as ambient/inlet temperatures, wind speed, solar insolation, flow rate, concentration ratio, etc.) the NCPSC has about 5–10% higher efficiency as compared to the conventional parabolic solar collector. Furthermore, parametric studies were carried out to discover the influence of various parameters on performance and efficiency. The following parameters were studied in the present study: solar insolation, incident angle, and the convective heat transfer coefficient. The theoretical results clearly indicate that the NCPSC has the potential to harness solar radiant energy more efficiently than a conventional parabolic trough.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lee, S. W., Park, S. D., Kang, S., Bang, I. C., and Kim, J. H., 2011, “Investigation of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of SiC Nanofluids for Heat Transfer Applications,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,54(1-3), pp. 433–438. [CrossRef]
Chen, H., Yang, W., He, Y., Ding, Y., Zhang, L., Tan, C., Lapkin, A. A., and Bavykin, D. V., 2008, “Heat Transfer and Flow Behavior of Aqueous Suspensions of Titanate Nanotubes (Nanofluids),” Powder Technol., 183(1), pp. 63–72. [CrossRef]
Murshed, S. M. S., Leong, K. C., and Yang, C., 2008, “Investigation of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 47(5), pp. 560–568. [CrossRef]
Eastman, J. A., Choi, U. S., Li, S., Thompson, L. J., and Lee, S., 1996, “Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Through the Development of Nanofluids,” Proceedings of the Symposium on Nanophase and Nanocomposite Materials II, MRS Proceedings, Vol. 457, pp. 3–11. [CrossRef]
Sarkar, J., 2011, “A Critical Review on Convective Heat Transfer Correlations of Nanofluids,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(6), pp. 3271–3277. [CrossRef]
Kleinstreuer, C., Li, J., and Koo, J., 2008, “Microfluidics of Nano-Drug Delivery,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer,51(23-24), pp. 5590–5597. [CrossRef]
He, X., Park, E. Y. H., Fowler, A., Yarmush, M. L., and Toner, M., 2008, “Vitrification by Ultra-Fast Cooling at a Low Concentration of Cryoprotectants in a Quartz Micro-Capillary: A Study Using Murine Embryonic Stem Cells,” Cryobiology, 56(3), pp. 223–232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tyagi, H., Phelan, P. E., and Prasher, R. S., 2009, “Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Using Solar Energy: Use of Nanoparticle-Laden Molten Salt as the Working Fluid,” ASME 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, San Francisco, CA, July 19–23, Paper No. ES2009-90039. [CrossRef]
Otanicar, T., Phelan, P. E., PrasherR. S., and GoldenJ. S., 2009, “Optical Properties of Liquids for Direct Absorption Solar Thermal Energy Systems,” Sol. Energy, 83(7), pp. 969–977. [CrossRef]
Saini, E., Barison, S., Pagura, C., Mercatelli, L., Sansoni, P., Fontani, D., Jafrancesco, D., and Francini, F., 2010, “Carbon Nanohorns-Based Nanofluids as Direct Sunlight Absorbers,” Opt. Express, 18(5), pp. 5179–5187. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tyagi, H., Phelan, P., and Prasher, R., 2009, “Predicted Efficiency of a Low-Temperature Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 131 (4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Otanicar, T., Phelan, P. E., PrasherR. S., RosengartenG., and TaylorR. A., 2010, “Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 2(3), p. 033102. [CrossRef]
Lenert, A., Zuniga, Y. S. P., and Wang, E. N., 2010, “Nanofluid-Based Absorbers for High Temperature Direct Solar Collectors,” Proceedings of the International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC14), Washington, D.C., Aug. 8–13, Paper No. IHTC14-22208. [CrossRef]
Taylor, R. A., Phelan, P. E., Otanicar, T. P., Walker, C. A., Nguyen, M., Trimble, S., and Prasher, R., 2011, “Applicability of Nanofluids in High Flux Solar Collectors,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 3(2), p. 023104. [CrossRef]
Khullar, V., and Tyagi, H., 2010, “Application of Nanofluids as the Working Fluid in Concentrating Parabolic Solar Collectors,” 37th National & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics & Fluid Power, IIT Madras, Chennai, India, Dec. 16–18, Paper No. FMFP2010-179.
Dudley, V. E., Kolb, G. J., Mahoney, A. R., Mancini, T. R., Matthews, C. W., Sloan, M., and Kearney, D., 1994, “Test Results: SEGS LS-2 Solar Collector,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND94-1884.
Duffle, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 2006, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, pp. 75–85, 189, 327, Chap. 2, 4, 7.
Bohren, C. F., and Huffman, D. R., 1983, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 130–136, Chap. 5.
Incropera, F. P., and DeWitt, D. P., 2007, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th ed., John Wiley and Sons, p. 905.
Therminol, “Therminol VP-1: Vapor Phase/Liquid Phase Heat Transfer Fluid,” Solutia Inc., retrieved June 2012, http://www.therminol.com/pages/bulletins/therminol_vp1.pdf
Das, S. K., Choi, S. U. S., Yu, W., and Pradeep, T., 2008, Nanofluids: Science and Technology, John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, pp.167–168, Chap. 4.
Zhang, X., Gu, H., and Fujii, M., 2006, “Effective Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Nanofluids Containing Spherical and Cylindrical Nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys., 100, p. 044325. [CrossRef]
Maxwell, J. C., 1891, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Vol. 1, unabridged 3rd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 435–441, Chap. 9.
Hamilton, R. L., Crosser, O. K., 1962, “Thermal Conductivity of Heterogeneous Two Component Systems,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 1(3), pp. 187–191. [CrossRef]
Prasher, R., Bhattacharya, P., and Phelan, P. E., 2005, “Thermal Conductivity of Nanoscale Colloidal Solutions (Nanofluids),” Phys. Rev. Lett., 94(2), p. 025901. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wang, B. X., Zhou, L. P., and Peng, X. F., 2003, “A Fractal Model for Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Liquid With Suspension of Nanoparticles,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 2665–2672. [CrossRef]
Nan, C. W., Birringer, R., Clarke, D. R., and Gleiter, H., 1997, “Effective Thermal Conductivity of Particulate Composites With Interfacial Thermal Resistance,” J. Appl. Phys., 81(10), pp. 6692–6699. [CrossRef]
Buongiorno, J., Venerus, D. C., Prabhat, N., McKrell, T., Townsend, J., Christianson, R., Tolmachev, Y. V., Keblinski, P., Hu, L. W., Alvarado, J. L., Bang, I. C., Bishnoi, S. W., Bonetti, M., Botz, F., Cecere, A., Chang, Y., Chen, G., Chen, H., Chung, S. J., Chyu, M. K., Das, S. K., Paola, R. D., Ding, Y., Dubois, F., Dzido, G., Eapen, J., Escher, W., Funfschilling, D., Galand, Q., Gao, J., Gharagozloo, P. E., Goodson, K. E., Gutierrez, J. G., Hong, H., Horton, M., Hwang, K. S., Iorio, C. S., Jang, S. P., Jarzebski, A. B., Jiang, Y., Jin, L., Kabelac, S., Kamath, A., Kedzierski, M. A., Kieng, L. G., Kim, C., Kim, J. H., Kim, S., Lee, S. H., Leong, K. C., Manna, I., Michel, B., Ni, R., Patel, H. E., Philip, J., Poulikakos, D., Reynaud, C., Savino, R., Singh, P. K., Song, P., Sundararajan, T., Timofeeva, E., Tritcak, T., Turanov, A. N., Vaerenbergh, S. V., Wen, D., Witharana, S., Yang, C., Yeh, W. H., Zhao, X. Z., and Zhou, S. Q., 2009, “A Benchmark Study on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids,” J. Appl. Phys., 106, p. 094312. [CrossRef]
Lenert, A., and Wang, E. N., 2012, “Optimization of Nanofluid Volumetric Receivers for Solar Thermal Energy Conversion,” Sol. Energy, 86, pp. 253–265. [CrossRef]
Winsemius, P., van Kampen, F. F., Lengkeek, H. P., and van Went, C. G., 1976, “Temperature Dependence of the Optical Properties of Au, Ag and Cu,” J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 6(8), pp. 1583–1606. [CrossRef]
Link, S., and El-Sayed, M. A., 1999, “Size and Temperature Dependence of the Plasmon Absorption of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. B., 103(21), pp. 4212–4217. [CrossRef]
Bashkatov, A. N., and Genina, E. A., 2003, “Water Refractive Index in Dependence on Temperature and Wavelength: A Simple Approximation,” Proc. SPIE, pp. 393–395. [CrossRef]
Modest, M. F., 2003, Radiative Heat Transfer, 2nd ed., Academic Press, California, pp. 522-523, Chap. 16.
Brewster, M. Q., 1992, Thermal Radiative Transfer and Properties, John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 502.
Taylor, R. A., Phelan, P. E., Otanicar, T. P., Adrian, R., and Prashar, R., 2011, “Nanofluid Optical Property Characterization: Towards Efficient Direct Absorption Solar Collectors,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6, pp. 2251–2261. [CrossRef]
Cengel, Y. A., 2003, Heat Transfer: A Practical Approach, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, India, pp. 282–291, Chap. 5.
Forristall, R., 2003, “Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver Implemented in Engineering Equation Solver,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado, Report No. NREL/TP-550-34169.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) conventional receiver and (b) NCPSC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Attenuation of solar irradiance as it passes through the nanofluid and subsequent convective (qconv) and radiative (qrad) losses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of NCPSC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Effect of temperature on the thermal diffusivity of Therminol VP-1 (data points taken from Ref. [20])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Spectral extinction coefficient of the Therminol VP-1(data points taken from Ref. [9,35]) and the nanofluid. The symbols used in the plots are as follows: () Therminol VP-1 and () nanofluid (Therminol VP-1 + 0.05% Al nanoparticles).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Discretization of the participating medium with finite difference nodes in radial coordinates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of (a) optical loss, (b) thermal loss, and (c) total loss as a function of average fluid temperature above ambient for BCPSC, NCPSC, and the conventional linear parabolic solar collectors (data points for the conventional linear parabolic solar collector have been taken from Ref. [16]). The symbols used in the plots are as follows: () nanofluid-based volumetric receiver with vacuum in the annulus; () basefluid-based volumetric receiver with vacuum in the annulus and () Dudley et al. [16] (Cermet receiver with vacuum in the annulus).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of thermal efficiency as a function of average fluid temperature above ambient for BCPSC, NCPSC, and the conventional linear parabolic solar collectors (data points for the conventional linear parabolic solar collector have been taken from Ref. [16]). The symbols used in the plots are as follows: () nanofluid-based volumetric receiver with vacuum in the annulus; () basefluid-based volumetric receiver with vacuum in the annulus and () Dudley et al. [16] (Cermet receiver with vacuum in the annulus).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of thermal efficiencies as a function of incident angle for NCPSC and the conventional linear parabolic solar collectors (data points for the conventional linear parabolic solar collector have been taken from Ref. [16]). The symbols used in the plots are as follows: () nanofluid-based receiver with vacuum in the annulus and () Dudley et al. [16] (black chrome selective coating with vacuum in the annulus).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of convective heat transfer coefficient on (a) thermal efficiency and (b) thermal losses in the case of NCPSC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of solar incident angle on (a) thermal efficiency and (b) thermal losses for the NCPSC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of solar irradiance on (a) thermal efficiency and (b) thermal losses in the case of NCPSC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Thermal efficiency as a function of thermal diffusivity of Therminol VP-1

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In