High density polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used as a bearing material in industrial application because of its low friction and high wear resistance properties. Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced HDPE nanocomposites are promising materials for biomedical applications as well, such as being the bearing materials in total joint replacements. The main objective of the present study is to investigate how the wear of HDPE can be altered by the addition of either pristine or silane treated CNFs at different loading levels (0.5 wt. % and 3 wt. %). Two types of silane coating thicknesses, 2.8 nm and 46 nm, were applied on the surfaces of oxidized CNFs to improve the interfacial bonding strength between the CNFs and the matrix. The CNF/HDPE nanocomposites were prepared through melt mixing and hot-pressing. The coefficients of friction (COFs) and wear rates of the neat HDPE and CNF/HDPE nanocomposites were determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding conditions. The microstructures of the worn surfaces of the nanocomposites were characterized using both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope to analyze their wear mechanisms. Compared with the neat HDPE, the COF of the nanocomposites were reduced. The nanocomposite reinforced with CNFs coated with the thicker silane coating (46 nm) at 0.5 wt. % loading level was found to yield the highest wear resistance with a wear rate reduction of nearly 68% compared to the neat HDPE.