The particle size and size distribution of the hydrated LRDNG (diluted 10 x) was determined by dynamic light scattering using a ZS90 Malvern Zetasize Nano series instrument (Malvern, Westborough, MA) equipped with a 22 MW He-Ne laser operating at a wavelength of 633 nm. UV spectra of LRDNG solution (diluted 10 x) were recorded on a Cary 5000 UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer (Varian, Inc., Palo Alto, CA). LRDNG morphology was imaged by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) on a JEM 2010 (JEOL, Ltd., Peabody, MA) at 80 kV. The samples were prepared by placing a dilute drop of the LRDNG solution onto a holey carbon TEM grid (Structure Probe, Inc., West Chester, PA). Excess liquid was removed via capillary action using a paper filter at the bottom of the TEM grid. TEM micrographs were analyzed using ImageJ (NIH, Bethesda, MD). Epifluorescence microscopy was performed using an Olympus IX70 microscope (Olympus, Melville, NY) outfitted with a Chroma Photofluor metal halide light source (89 North, Burlington, VT). Images were captured using a SensiCam QE camera (The Cooke Corp., Romulus, MI) (2 × 2 binning, 688 × 520). iplab software was used for image acquisition and to control the LUDL programmable filter wheels, shutters, and focus (Ludl Electronic Products, Hawthorne, NY). Confocal microscopy was performed on an Olympus IX81 with Fluoview FV1000 controller. Fluoview 1.6 was used for image acquisition and ImageJ was used for analysis. Plate reader assays were performed using CHAMELEON™V (Hidex, Turku, Finland). Flow cytometry was performed using BD FACSCalibur and CellQuest software (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA). Two-color analysis was performed with FlowJo software (Tree Star, Inc., OR).