Research Papers

Calibration of a Quasi-Adiabatic Magneto-Thermal Calorimeter Used to Characterize Magnetic Nanoparticle Heating

[+] Author and Article Information
Anilchandra Attaluri

Department of Radiation Oncology
and Molecular Radiation Sciences,
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,
Baltimore, MD 21287
e-mail: aattalu1@jhmi.edu

Charlie Nusbaum

Department of Applied Physics,
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey,
Galloway, NJ 08205

Robert Ivkov

Department of Radiation Oncology
and Molecular Radiation Sciences,
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,
Baltimore, MD 21287

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 15, 2012; final manuscript received April 11, 2013; published online July 11, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Malisa Sarntinoranont.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(1), 011006 (Jul 11, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: NANO-12-1128; doi: 10.1115/1.4024273 History: Received October 15, 2012; Revised April 11, 2013

To assess and validate temperature measurement and data analysis techniques for a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter used to measure amplitude-dependent loss power of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) at radiofrequencies (160 ± 5 kHz). The data collected and methods developed were used to measure the specific loss power (SLP) for two magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) suspensions, developed for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. Calibration was performed by comparing measured against calculated values of specific absorption rate (SAR) of a copper wire subjected to AMF. Rate of temperature rise from induced eddy currents was measured (n = 4) for a copper wire of radius 0.99 mm and length of 3.38 mm in an AMF at amplitudes (H) of 16, 20, 24, and 28 kA/m. The AMF was generated by applying an alternating current using an 80-kW induction power supply to a capacitance network containing a 13.5-cm vertical solenoid that held the calorimeter. Samples were taped to an optical fiber temperature probe and inserted into a standard (polystyrene, 5 ml) test tube which was suspended in the calorimeter. The sample was subjected to the AMF for 30 s or until the temperature of the sample, increased by 30 °C, recorded at 0.3-s intervals. The SAR of the sample was normalized by H2f1/2, averaged, and compared to theoretical values. Iron (Fe) normalized SLPs of two IONPs (JHU-MION and bionized-nanoferrite (BNF) particles (Micromod Partikeltechnologie, GmbH)) in aqueous suspension were measured in the same setup. We report experimental SAR values for the copper of 2.4 ± 0.1, 4.3 ± 0.2, 6.2 ± 0.1, and 8.5 ± 0.1 W/g compared to theoretical values 3.1 ± 0.1, 4.5 ± 0.2, 6.5 ± 0.1, and 9.2 ± 0.2 W/g at AMF amplitudes of 16 ± 0.1, 20 ± 0.2, 24 ± 0.1, and 28 ± 0.1 kA/m, respectively. Normalized experimental data followed a linear trend approximately parallel to theoretical values with an R2-value of 0.99. The measured SLPs of the JHU particles are higher than BNF particles within the tested AMF amplitude range of 15 kA/m to 45 kA/m. We demonstrated that copper can be used to calibrate magneto-thermal calorimetric systems used for SLP measurements of magnetic nanoparticles for a field range of 15–28 kA/m at 160 ± 5 kHz. We also note that the electrical conductivity, diameter of copper sample and accuracy, and response time of thermometry constrain calibration to lower amplitudes, highlighting the need for development of standard reference materials for such applications.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Johannsen, M., Gneveckow, U., Taymoorian, K., Thiesen, B., Waldöfner, N., Scholz, R., Jung, K., Jordan, A., Wust, P., and Loening, S. A., 2007, “Morbidity and Quality of Life During Thermotherapy Using Magnetic Nanoparticles in Locally Recurrent Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Phase I Trial,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 23(3), pp. 315–323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pankhurst, Q. A., Thanh, N. T. K., Jones, S. K., and Dobson, J., 2009, “Progress in Applications of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Biomedicine,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 42, p. 224001. [CrossRef]
DeNardo, S. J., DeNardo, G. L., Miers, L. A., Natarajan, A., Foreman, A. R., Grüttner, C., Adamson, G. N., and Ivkov, R., 2005, “Development of Tumor Targeting Bioprobes ((111)In-Chimeric L6 Monoclonal Antibody Nanoparticles) for Alternating Magnetic Field Cancer Therapy,” Clin. Cancer Res., 11(19 Pt 2), pp. 7087s–7092s. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Khandhar, A. P., Ferguson, R. M., Simon, J. A., and Krishnan, K. M., 2012, “Tailored Magnetic Nanoparticles for Optimizing Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 100(3), pp. 728–737. [CrossRef]
Sonvico, F., Mornet, S., Vasseur, S., Dubernet, C., Jaillard, D., Degrouard, J., Hoebeke, J., Duguet, E., Colombo, P., and Couvreur, P., 2005, “Folate-Conjugated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Solid Tumor Targeting as Potential Specific Magnetic Hyperthermia Mediators: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, and In Vitro Experiments,” Bioconjugate Chem., 16(5), pp. 1181–1188. [CrossRef]
Jordan, A., Wust, P., Scholz, R., Tesche, B., Fahling, H., Mitrovics, T., Vogl, T., Cervós-Navarro, J., and Felix, R., 1996, “Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Fuid Particles and Their Effects on Human Adenocarcinoma Cells Exposed to AC Magnetic Fields In Vitro,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 12(6), pp. 705–722. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Giustini, A. J., Ivkov, R., and Hoopes, P. J., 2011, “Magnetic Nanoparticle Biodistribution Following Intratumoral Administration,” Nanotechnology, 22, p. 345101. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bordelon, D. E., Cornejo, C., Grüttner, C., Westphal, F., DeWeese, T. L., and Ivkov, R., 2001, “Magnetic Nanoparticle Heating Efficiency Reveals Magneto-Structural Differences When Characterized With Wide Ranging and High Amplitude Alternating Magnetic Fields,” J. Appl. Phys., 109, p. 124904. [CrossRef]
Bordelon, D. E., Goldstein, R. C., Nemkov, V. S., Kumar, A., Jackowski, J. K., DeWeese, T. L., and Ivkov, R., 2012, “Modified Solenoid Coil That Efficiently Produces High Amplitude AC Magnetic Fields With Enhanced Uniformity for Biomedical Applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 48(1), pp. 47–52. [CrossRef]
Natividad, E., Castro, M., and Mediano, A., 2008, “Accurate Measurement of The Specific Absorption Rate Using a Suitable Adiabatic Magnetothemal Setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, p. 093116. [CrossRef]
Natividad, E., Castro, M., and Mediano, A., 2009, “Adiabatic vs. Non-Adiabatic Determination of Specific Absorption Rate of Ferrofluids,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 321, pp. 1497–1500. [CrossRef]
Bakoglidis, K. D., Simeonidis, K., Sakellari, D., Stefanou, G., and Angelakeris, M., 2012, “Size-Dependent Mechanisms in AC Magnetic Hyperthermia Response of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 48(4), pp. 1320–1323. [CrossRef]
Rosensweig, R. E., 2002, “Heating Magnetic Fluid With Alternating Magnetic field,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 252, pp. 370–374. [CrossRef]
Lévy, M., Wilhelm, C., Siaugue, J. M., Horner, O., Bacri, J. C., and Gazeau, F., 2008, “Magnetically Induced Hyperthermia: Size-Dependent Heating Power of γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 20, p. 204133. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Li, C. H., Hodgins, P., and Peterson, G. P., 2011, “Experimental Study of Fundamental Mechanisms in Inductive Heating of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles Suspension (Fe3O4 Iron Oxide Ferrofluid),” J. Appl. Phys., 110, p. 054303. [CrossRef]
Wust, P., Gneveckow, U., Johannsen, M., Böhmer, D., Henkel, T., Kahmann, F., Sehouli, J., Felix, R., Ricke, J., and Jordan, A., 2006, “Magnetic Nanoparticles for Interstitial Thermotherapy-Feasibility, Tolerance and Achieved Temperatures,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 22(8), pp. 673–685. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gneveckow, U., Jordan, A., Scholz, R., Brüss, V., Waldöfner, N., Ricke, J., Feussner, A., Hildebrandt, B., Rau, B., and Wust, P., 2004, “Description and Characterization of the Novel Hyperthermia and Thermoablation System MFH 300F for Clinical Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia,” Med. Phys., 31(6), pp. 1444–1451. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Attaluri, A., Ma, R., Qiu, Y., Li, W., and Zhu, L., 2011, “Nanoparticle Distribution and Temperature Elevations in Prostatic Tumours in Mice during Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 27(5), pp. 491–502. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bruners, P., Braunschweig, T., Hodenius, M., Pietsch, H., Penzkofer, T., Baumann, M., Günther, R., Schmitz-Rode, T., and Mahnken, A., 2010, “Thermoablation of Malignant Kidney Tumors Using Magnetic Nanoparticles: An in vivo Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model,” Cardiovasc. Intervent Radiol., 13(1), pp. 127–134. [CrossRef]
Johannsen, M., Thiesen, B., Wust, P., and Jordan, A., 2010, “Magnetic Nanoparticle Hyperthermia for Prostate Cancer,” Int. J. Hyperthermia, 26(8), pp. 790–795. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mamiya, H., and Jeyadevan, B., 2011, “Hyperthermic Effects of Dissipative Structures of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Large Alternating Magnetic Fields,” Scientific Reports, Report No. 1, Article No. 157. [CrossRef]
Carrey, J., Mehdaoui, B., and Respaud, M., 2011, “Simple Models for Dynamic Hysteresis Loop Calculations of Magnetic Single-Domain Nanoparticles: Application to Magnetic Hyperthermia Optimization,” J. Appl. Phys., 109, p. 083921. [CrossRef]
Kallumadil, M., Tada, M., Nakagawa, T., Abe, M., Southern, P., and Pankhurst, Q. A., 2009, “Suitability of Commercial Colloids for Magnetic Hyperthermia,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 321, pp. 1509–1513. [CrossRef]
Etheridge, M. L., and Bischof, J. C., 2013, “Optimizing Magnetic Nanoparticle Based Thermal Therapies Within the Physical Limits of Heating,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 41(1), pp. 78–88. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huang, S., Wang, S. Y., Gupta, A., Borca-Tasciuc, D. A., and Salon, S. J., 2012, “On the Measurement Technique for Specific Absorption Rate of Nanoparticles in an Alternating Electromagnetic Field,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 23, p. 035701. [CrossRef]
Krishnan, K. M., 2010, “Biomedical Nanomagnetics: A Spin Through Possibilities in Imaging, Diagnostics, and Therapy,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 46(7), pp. 2523–2558. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Urtizberea, A., Natividad, E., Arizaga, A., Castro, M., and Mediano, A., 2010, “Specific Absorption Rates and Magnetic Properties of Ferrofluids With Interaction Effects at Low Concentrations,” J. Phys. Chem. C, 114(11), pp. 4916–4922. [CrossRef]
Kashevsky, B. E., Kashevsky, S., and Prokhorov, I., 2009, “Magnetodynamics and Self-Organization in Strongly Non-Equilibrium Ferrosuspensions,” Solid State Phenom., 152, pp. 175–181. [CrossRef]
Thompson, M. T., 1998, “Simple Models and Measurements of Magnetically Induced Heating Effects in Ferromagnetic Fluids,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 34(5), pp. 3755–3764. [CrossRef]
Zahn, M., 1997, “Power Dissipation and MagneticForces on MAGLEV Rebars,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 33(2), pp. 1021–1036. [CrossRef]
Grüttner, C., Mueller, K., Teller, J., Westphal, F., Foreman, A., and Ivkov, R., 2007, “Synthesis and Antibody Conjugation of Magnetic Nanoparticles With Improved Specific Power Absorption Rates for Alternating Magnetic Field Cancer Therapy,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 311(1), pp. 181–186. [CrossRef]
Dennis, C. L., JacksonA. J., Borchers, J. A., HoopesP. J., Strawbridge.R., Foreman, A. R., van Lierop, J., Grüttner, C., and Ivkov, R., 2009, “Nearly Complete Regression of Tumors Via Collective Behavior of Magnetic Nanoparticles In Hyperthermia,” Nanotechnology, 20(39), p. 395103. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Krycka, K. L., Jackson, A. J., Borchers, J. A., Shih, J., Briber, R., Ivkov, R., Grüttner, C., and Dennis, C. L., 2011, “Internal Magnetic Structure of Dextran Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles in Solution Using Small Angle Neutron Scattering With Polarization Analysis,” J. Appl. Phys., 109(7), 07B513. [CrossRef]
Dennis, C. L., Jackson, A. J., BorchersJ. A., Ivkov, R., Foreman, A. R., Lau, J. W., Goernitz, E., and Gruettner, C., 2008, “The Influence of Collective Behavior on the Magnetic and Heating Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys., 103, 07A319. [CrossRef]
Chen, J. F., Wang, Y. H., Guo, F., Wang, X. M., and Zheng, C., 2000, “Synthesis of Nanoparticles With Novel Technology: High-Gravity Reactive Precipitation,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 39(4), pp. 948–954. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Magnetic iron oxide particle size distribution based on z-averaged values of intensity obtained from PCS data, as provided by manufacturer.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the cross-sectional view of the quasi-adiabatic calorimetric system used for temperature measurements. Two fiber optic temperature probes are shown in the figure. Probe1 is suspended inside the test tube using a Styrofoam (insulation) secured at the top of the tube, while probe 2 is placed at the intersection of surrounding insulation and the 5 ml polystyrene tube.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Sample dT versus dt data of copper sample recorded at four different representative field amplitudes and (b) sample incremental temperature change, TnTn−1, versus dt of copper sample recorded at four different representative field amplitudes.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Estimated and measured SAR versus the product of square of field strength and square root of frequency profiles of copper sample. Solid line represents the weighted linear least square regression to the measured SAR data and (b) residual of estimated and measured SAR versus the product of square of field strength and square root of frequency profiles of copper sample.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Measured SLPs of BNF-starch and JHU-MIONs over a AMF amplitude range of 15 kA/m to 45 kA/m and (b) residual plot of SLPs of BNF-starch and JHU-MIONs



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In