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Research Papers

Calibration of a Quasi-Adiabatic Magneto-Thermal Calorimeter Used to Characterize Magnetic Nanoparticle Heating

[+] Author and Article Information
Anilchandra Attaluri

Department of Radiation Oncology
and Molecular Radiation Sciences,
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,
Baltimore, MD 21287
e-mail: aattalu1@jhmi.edu

Charlie Nusbaum

Department of Applied Physics,
The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey,
Galloway, NJ 08205

Robert Ivkov

Department of Radiation Oncology
and Molecular Radiation Sciences,
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine,
Baltimore, MD 21287

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 15, 2012; final manuscript received April 11, 2013; published online July 11, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Malisa Sarntinoranont.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(1), 011006 (Jul 11, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: NANO-12-1128; doi: 10.1115/1.4024273 History: Received October 15, 2012; Revised April 11, 2013

To assess and validate temperature measurement and data analysis techniques for a quasi-adiabatic calorimeter used to measure amplitude-dependent loss power of magnetic nanoparticles exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) at radiofrequencies (160 ± 5 kHz). The data collected and methods developed were used to measure the specific loss power (SLP) for two magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) suspensions, developed for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. Calibration was performed by comparing measured against calculated values of specific absorption rate (SAR) of a copper wire subjected to AMF. Rate of temperature rise from induced eddy currents was measured (n = 4) for a copper wire of radius 0.99 mm and length of 3.38 mm in an AMF at amplitudes (H) of 16, 20, 24, and 28 kA/m. The AMF was generated by applying an alternating current using an 80-kW induction power supply to a capacitance network containing a 13.5-cm vertical solenoid that held the calorimeter. Samples were taped to an optical fiber temperature probe and inserted into a standard (polystyrene, 5 ml) test tube which was suspended in the calorimeter. The sample was subjected to the AMF for 30 s or until the temperature of the sample, increased by 30 °C, recorded at 0.3-s intervals. The SAR of the sample was normalized by H2f1/2, averaged, and compared to theoretical values. Iron (Fe) normalized SLPs of two IONPs (JHU-MION and bionized-nanoferrite (BNF) particles (Micromod Partikeltechnologie, GmbH)) in aqueous suspension were measured in the same setup. We report experimental SAR values for the copper of 2.4 ± 0.1, 4.3 ± 0.2, 6.2 ± 0.1, and 8.5 ± 0.1 W/g compared to theoretical values 3.1 ± 0.1, 4.5 ± 0.2, 6.5 ± 0.1, and 9.2 ± 0.2 W/g at AMF amplitudes of 16 ± 0.1, 20 ± 0.2, 24 ± 0.1, and 28 ± 0.1 kA/m, respectively. Normalized experimental data followed a linear trend approximately parallel to theoretical values with an R2-value of 0.99. The measured SLPs of the JHU particles are higher than BNF particles within the tested AMF amplitude range of 15 kA/m to 45 kA/m. We demonstrated that copper can be used to calibrate magneto-thermal calorimetric systems used for SLP measurements of magnetic nanoparticles for a field range of 15–28 kA/m at 160 ± 5 kHz. We also note that the electrical conductivity, diameter of copper sample and accuracy, and response time of thermometry constrain calibration to lower amplitudes, highlighting the need for development of standard reference materials for such applications.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Magnetic iron oxide particle size distribution based on z-averaged values of intensity obtained from PCS data, as provided by manufacturer.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the cross-sectional view of the quasi-adiabatic calorimetric system used for temperature measurements. Two fiber optic temperature probes are shown in the figure. Probe1 is suspended inside the test tube using a Styrofoam (insulation) secured at the top of the tube, while probe 2 is placed at the intersection of surrounding insulation and the 5 ml polystyrene tube.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Sample dT versus dt data of copper sample recorded at four different representative field amplitudes and (b) sample incremental temperature change, TnTn−1, versus dt of copper sample recorded at four different representative field amplitudes.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Estimated and measured SAR versus the product of square of field strength and square root of frequency profiles of copper sample. Solid line represents the weighted linear least square regression to the measured SAR data and (b) residual of estimated and measured SAR versus the product of square of field strength and square root of frequency profiles of copper sample.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Measured SLPs of BNF-starch and JHU-MIONs over a AMF amplitude range of 15 kA/m to 45 kA/m and (b) residual plot of SLPs of BNF-starch and JHU-MIONs

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