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Research Papers

Detonation Nanodiamonds and Carbon Nanotubes as Reinforcements in Epoxy Composites—A Comparative Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Sagar Roy

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science,
New Jersey Institute of Technology,
Newark, NJ 07102

Kabir Mitra

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
New Jersey Institute of Technology,
Newark, NJ 07102

Somenath Mitra

e-mail: mitra@njit.edu
Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science,
New Jersey Institute of Technology,
Newark, NJ 07102

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 8, 2013; final manuscript received May 17, 2013; published online July 11, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Abraham Wang.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(1), 011008 (Jul 11, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: NANO-13-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4024663 History: Received April 08, 2013; Revised May 17, 2013

A comparative study between detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as low concentration additives to epoxy composites is presented. The dispersibility of the different nanocarbons in resin solutions leading to uniform composite formation is also discussed. Significant increase in glass transition temperature was observed, which were 37 °C and 17 °C for DNDs and CNTs, respectively. Unlike the pure epoxy, the fractured surface of both composites showed resistance to crack propagation. Tensile properties of DNDs and CNTs composites showed enhancement of 6.4% and 2.9%, respectively. The nanocomposites also showed an increase in microhardness by 41% for DNDs and 12% for CNTs, and a decrease in electrical resistivity by 2 orders of magnitude, with the CNTs showing lower resistivity. In general, the DNDs were found to be quite effective and at the reported concentrations between 0.1% and 0.5% and showed superior enhancement compared to the CNTs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of dispersion of 0.05 wt. % MWCNTs (left) and DNDs (right) in mixed solvent (1:1 xylene-butanol) and (b) stability of in presence of 5 wt. % epoxy resin with time

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Fig. 2

Schematic representation of epoxy-nanocomposite with CNTs (left) and DNDs (right)

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Fig. 3

Photographs of (a) epoxy-DND composite, (b) epoxy-CNT composite and 3D images of (c) epoxy-CNT composite surface and (d) epoxy-DND composite surface from digital microscope (Keyence). The concentration of DNDs and CNTs were 0.1% (scale bar: red 67.7, yellow 38.7, green 29.06, and dark blue 0.0 μm). For black and white print; the circle and black spot corresponds to 67.7 and 0 micron, respectively.

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Fig. 4

SEM images of (a) CNTs, (b) DNDs; cross-sectional views of (c) pure epoxy, (d) epoxy-CNT composite, and (e) epoxy-DND composite. The percentage of DNDs and CNTs in the composites were 0.1% (scale bars—Figs. 4(a) and 4(c) are one micron, (b) and (d) are 200 nm, Fig. 4(e) is 300 nm).

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Fig. 5

Tensile properties of pure epoxy and 0.1% epoxy-nanocomposites (a) tensile strength and (b) elongation at break (%).

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Fig. 6

Optical images of vickers indents produced with a load of 1 kgf for (a) pure epoxy, (b) epoxy-CNT composite and (c) epoxy-DND composite. Concentration of nanocarbons in the composites were 0.1%.

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Fig. 7

(a) TGA thermogram of pure epoxy and 0.1% epoxy-nanocomposites and (b) DSC curve of pure epoxy and epoxy-nanocomposites.

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