Glass–glass devices were achieved by using an interfacial bonding procedure using calcium-assisted bonding . In order to obtain bonded nanochannel networks, patterned borosilicate substrates and glass covers were first cleaned with a piranha solution for 10 mins. The cleaned glass cover was then scrubbed with a 1% Alconox (Alconox, Inc.,) solution in DI water for 2 mins. The cover and patterned substrate were rinsed with a 0.5% calcium acetate/0.5% Alconox slurry. The two device components were then brought into contact, separated, and rinsed with DI water for 20 seconds. Next, the two glass slides (i.e., the one with the etched channel network and the second one with the cover holes drilled) were aligned and dehydrated under pressure at 60 °C for 1 h. Devices were then inspected for defects where a defect was identified by the presence of Newton rings . If defects were present i.e., an interference pattern was observed, the two glass slides were pulled apart, and then re-bonded. Once the temporary bonds with no visible defects were achieved, the device was fully dehydrated and irreversibly sealed under pressure at 115 °C for 2 h. This procedure modifies previously reported calcium assisted bonding  by adding the piranha cleaning step. While the original report for fabrication of micron depth channels does not require aggressive cleaning for device bonding, it was found at the length scales reported here successful devices could not be fabricated without the piranha cleaning step suggesting the need for better surface property control for nanochannel networks.