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Research Papers

Effect of Solution Content ZnO Nanoparticles on Thermal Stability of Polyvinyl Chloride OPEN ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
Farshad Farahbod

Department of Chemistry,
Firoozabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
P.O. Box: 74715-117,
Firoozabad, Fars, Iran
e-mail: mf_fche@iauf.ac.ir

Narges Bagheri

e-mail: n.bagheri@iauf.ac.ir

Fereshteh Madadpour

e-mail: mostahkamjonoobco@yahoo.com
Department of Chemistry,
Firoozabad Branch,
Islamic Azad University,
Firoozabad, Fars,Iran

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 23, 2013; final manuscript received July 17, 2013; published online August 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Roger Narayan.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(2), 021001 (Aug 21, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: NANO-13-1013; doi: 10.1115/1.4025209 History: Received February 23, 2013; Revised July 17, 2013

Today's pipe made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is used as basic good in different industries. The thermal stability of the PVC while is filled with ZnO nanoparticles was studied in this paper. This paper show that the stability of the PVC resin mixed with ZnO nanoparticles solution and Sn was better than that of the PVC resin mixed with Sn alone. The UV (ultraviolet)–vis spectra is showed that under certain heat treatment conditions, the PVC samples without ZnO nanoparticles solution embodied relatively high content of the conjugated double bonds with the chain length of about 3–5. However, the content of the conjugated double bond with the chain length of about 6 was greatly increased when the nanoparticles was filled into the PVC resin. This work shows the ZnO nanoparticles could inhibit the thermal degradation process of PVC resin in ionic mechanism.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
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The rheological behavior of polymer-nanoparticle composites was in the main research focus in the last 20 years [1]. All of these composites showed a non-Newtonian flow; the addition of the nanosized ZnO caused a larger viscosity increase than the medium sized at the identical solid loads. Wetting agents, also named surfactants or dispersants, possess a strong influence on the composite rheology due to a reduced interparticle friction [2]. Also, knowledge about changes in mechanical and chemical properties of PVC due to adding the additive is important not only for the prediction of service life but also for the recycling of materials [3]. The influence of additives and their interaction must also be considered owing to possible synergistic and antagonistic effects influencing various properties. Compensation by restabilization or adding nanoparticles and modifier agents improves the properties of produced polymers or even recycled materials [4]. Literatures focusing on the chemical and mechanical properties of current rigid PVC or discussion about the ways of recycling of used polymer materials [5]. Scientists believe that it is the time to revolute the PVC production industries. So, the extents of researches in this field are growth day to day [6]. Mechanical characterizations are frequently used as sensible and trustworthy criteria for evaluation of the technical quality of PVC materials [7,8]. The most common measurements are thermal stability, tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus and impact strength, also Ref. [9]. The effects of both chemical and physical ageing of PVC samples are generally reflected in its mechanical and thermal properties. Variations in thermal stabilities are the most sensitive measure of changes in the status of the material [10]. This evaluation which is often neglected is in many cases more important than the more usual measurement of stress at yield. However, interpretation of the test results is very difficult owing to the many variables influencing thermal properties. It is famous that an active centre can be formed when there are unsaturated double bonds in PVC molecules chains. Under the effect of heat, light, or sonic, sequential dehydrochloricgenation will be induced and long conjugated double bond chain blocks will be generated, which shows 6–8 absorption peaks in the 250–600 nm range in the UV–vis spectra [11]. Based on the synthetic concentration corresponding to the absorbency of the samples and the position of the absorption peaks, one can extract the chain length of the conjugated double bonds originated from the degradation of the PVC [12,13]. Certainly, Nanotechnology, for example, using of ZnO nanoparticles is one of the best solution which can improve the almost properties of some of materials [14].

The biggest advantages of zinc oxide are a low price, good gas sensing properties, antibacterial activity, photo catalytic activity, possibility to prepare structures with interesting optical properties, such as photonic crystals, catalytic materials; in small amounts, zinc oxide is not toxic, etc. [15]. In addition, there are a lot of different methods of zinc oxide nanostructures preparation, such as MOVPE, high temperature evaporation, gas spraying, pulsed laser deposition, sputtering, sol–gel, wet chemical, and electrochemical method [16].

On the other hand, the author has investigated the effect of the ZnO nanoparticles solution on the thermal stability of the PVC. The researcher focus on the investigation on the ZnO nanoparticles solution/PVC materials prepared from different conditions via the aid of UV–vis spectra in this paper. The mechanism that the ZnO nanoparticles can improve the thermal stability of the PVC is also discussed. The average size of used ZnO nanoparticles is 30–60 nm, approximately. Also, in this paper, the spherical nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30–60 nm in size are produced approximately and finally the crystal is pure zinc oxide with hexahedral structure. The produced zinc oxide nanoparticles are added to pure water. So, the effect of this solution is evaluated in this paper.

Properties of Zinc Oxide.

Zinc oxide nanoparticles, a common ingredient has a huge variety of applications. Previous investigations reported oxidative stress mediated toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles on various mammalian cell lines. Although zinc is an essential mineral at higher concentrations this metal is toxic. The literatures evaluate size determination by monitoring changes in activities of antioxidant defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress induced by zinc oxide nanoparticles using mouse liver tissue homogenates. The studies also surveyed the effects of oxidative stress induced DNA damage by determining formation of 8-OHdG in mouse liver homogenate. A cytotoxicity assay was also carried out in L929 cells to determine cell viability. The results of the studies indicated that 50 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles induced 50% cell death. Alterations in antioxidant parameters and 8-OHdG were also noted. Data showed that there was a concentration-dependent fall in cell viability; decrease antioxidant enzyme levels and increase formation of DNA adduct (8-OHdG) when mouse liver tissue homogenate were exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles.

Method of Preparation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle.

Nanofluids that are used in this experimental work are prepared in two steps. At first, the nanopowder of Zinc oxide is made and then this powder is mixed by the base fluid. Zinc metal is used to make a solution containing one molar Zn2+ ion. At first, this solution is purified, and then a type of surface-active reagent 0.05 M and approximately 10% of ethanol is added under the ultrasonic conditions. The produced solution as agitated in certain time periodic. Same reagents are added to Na2CO3, 1 M solution under the same conditions. Then, two produced aqueous solutions are mixed proportionally and agitating for half an hour under the ultrasonic action. Sequentially, adding another surface-active reagent and agitating for half an hour again, filtering and washing several times with distillation water and ethanol alternately under the ultrasonic action. The produced substance is prepared to dry for 50 min at 80 °C. Then, it roasted at 450 °C for 450 min to obtain zinc oxide nanoparticles. The obtained produced substance has light yellow color, and can been characterized by XRD and TEM. Figure 1 shows SEM photos of nanoparticles in two different visions (a) in the scale of 5 μm and (b) in the scale of 500 nm.

Produced spherical nanoparticles with the average diameter of 30–60 nm in size are produced approximately and finally the crystal is pure zinc oxide with hexahedral structure. The produced zinc oxide nanoparticles are added to pure water. Finally, the different concentrations of solution is produced which are added to polymer matrix.

In this paper, the mixture of ZnO nanoparticles solution and polyvinyl chloride is prepared to investigate the thermal stability of PVC samples. Using Congo Red experiment (an acid dye used in testing for produced acid) as follows: the PVC samples were cut to fine particles with the length of 0.5 mm based on GB8815-88 and the particles were put into a test pipe. Put a piece of Congo Red slide on the set position of the test pipe, envelop the test pipe, place the tube in the glycerol bath, and observe the time for the color change of the Congo Red slide at 200 ± 1 °C. So, the time of the slide turning from red to blue was defined as the thermal stability time.

Thermal Degradation Temperature of the ZnO Nanoparticles/PVC.

The static thermal stability of the ZnO nanoparticles solution/PVC materials could be identified by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA was performed using a PCTIA thermo gravimetric analyzer in ambient air from 30 to 800 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C/min and the weight of the sample was about 10 mg. The effect of the ZnO nanoparticles solution on the thermal stability of the PVC was investigated by variation the composition of ZnO nanoparticles solution.

UV–Vis Spectra Analysis.

The PVC slides with different components were pressed into films with the thickness about 50 μm when were molded on a double roller. The films were placed in an oven at 200 °C approximately for aging and also, the aging time was 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min, respectively. Optical spectra of the samples were recorded on a UV-2501PC UV–vis spectrometer and the slit width was adjusted at 1 nm. The air was always used as a reference to obtain absorption spectra. The temperature of UV–vis experiment was kept at 25 °C as room temperature.

The toughening mechanisms associated with nanometer-sized zinc oxide have frequently been shown to be due to debonding of the particles followed by polymer void growth [4,17]. Literatures have also demonstrated that the voids around particles closed-up when the PVC was heated above its Tg and allowed to relax. The debonding process is generally considered to absorb little energy [2,18]. However, debonding is essential because this reduces the constraint at the crack tip, and hence allows the matrix to deform via a void growth mechanism [19].

The thermal properties of polymer composites containing nanoparticles depend on the size and dispersion of the particles, the interaction between the particles and the polymer chains, and the properties of the polymer matrix and the particles and direct blending of nanosized ZnO [20].

So, the combination of ZnO and Sn is more beneficial than usage of Sn individually. This paper describes the impact of the particle size distribution of nanosized ZnO (primary particle size 30–40 nm, agglomerates 50–60 nm), dispersed PVC. Despite that ZnO possessed a small average particle size of 35–55 nm; the specific surface area was relatively low with a numerical value 22 m2/g, approximately. All of the obtained data are described with error bars. Error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data and are used on graphs to indicate the error, or uncertainty in a reported measurement. In statistics, an error bar is a type of interval estimate of a population parameter and is used to indicate the reliability of an estimate. It is an observed interval (i.e., it is calculated from the observations); in principle, it can be calculated according to the differences between the observed parameters. The evaluation on the thermal stability of the PVC samples using Congo Red experiment (an acid dye used in testing for produced acid) is based on the fact that the PVC resins will be decomposed to let out hydrogen chloride gas when they are warmed. For example, through measuring the composition of the hydrogen chloride, one can qualitatively analyze the static thermal stability of the PVC samples. Fixing the content of the Sn at 2.5 wt. % and variation of the ZnO nanoparticles solution, the researcher measured the color variation time of the samples using Congo Red experiment, respectively. The obtained results are shown in Fig. 2.

When zinc oxide is used, its electrons in its outer shells become excited and rise to higher energy levels then as the electrons reach their highest point they fall back to their original energy level this releases photons which seen as light, depending on how high the electrons rise and fall determines the wavelength of the photon and as a result the color variation time. Figure 2 shows the color changing time of the PVC resin which is treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles and untreated. From Fig. 2, is found when the ZnO nanoparticles solution is filled into the PVC resin, the color variation time of the PVC resin mixed with Sn and ZnO nanoparticles is apparently treated compared with that of the PVC resin mixed with organic Sn alone. Meanwhile, the color variation time is further enhanced along with the increase of the ZnO nanoparticles content. However, the extent of the improvement becomes limited when the solution content of the ZnO nanoparticles is higher than 1.5 wt. %. The thermal decomposition temperature of different obtained samples is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Thermal decomposition refers to the process by which various compounds broken down into simpler units by the usage of heat. So, this is a chemical process which involves the breaking of chemical bonds in the compound that is decomposing. Figure 3 shows the relation between thermal decomposition temperature of PVC samples and weight percentage of zinc oxide nanoparticle in solution. Figure 3 proofs the thermal decomposition temperature increases when the concentration of zinc oxide solution increasing.

Based on the thermal decomposition temperature in the thermogravimetry (TG) curves, one can extract the thermal stability of the PVC resin. Thermal stability can be expressed with the temperature of one percentage of decomposition, approximately. Also, since of thermal decomposition temperature is difficult to be evaluated so, the thermal decomposition temperature of sample is considered when the weight loss is 1%. Similar with the obtained result from Congo Red experiment. Figure 3 illustrates when the content of the Sn is 2.5 wt. %, the thermal decomposition temperature of the PVC resin is gradually increased along with the increase of the ZnO nanoparticles solution. That is, the thermal stability of the PVC resin is enhanced. This paper reports the synthesis and photophysical study of a series of ions, with variable chain lengths. These ions are of interest as they allow the study of the effect of chain length on amplified fluorescence quenching. The degree of polymerization of the precursor polymers can be controlled by addition of a monofunctional “end-cap” to the polymerization reaction. It has been extracted the UV–vis absorption wavelength is corresponded to the conjugated chain length of PVC slide which can be seen from Fig. 4.

Figure 4 states there is direct relation between UV–vis absorption wave length as nanometer and length of conjugated diene. In the other hand, the wave length increases when the length of conjugated diene increasing. Figure 4 shows extent of UV–vis absorption wave length when the conjugated diene change from 3 to 9. These experiments illustrate the UV–vis absorption varies from 287 to 419 nm. In the compounds examined in this experiment, the electrons in the conjugated chain are end of chain. This allows for a practical application of quantum mechanical calculations, with the use of UV-Vis spectroscopy to determine the wavelength of maximum excitation. So, these compounds can then be extended to other compounds with similar structure, so that conclusions can be drawn about the effects of conjugation on systems. When a molecule is struck by a photon, the resulting energy transfer raises the energy of the electrons, raising them to a higher energy state. Therefore, as light is absorbed, the energy of the molecule increases until the electrons fall back to their ground states, with the energy dissipating as light emission, vibrational energy, or other electrical transitions [11].

Figure 5 is shown the UV–vis spectra of PVC samples without zinc oxide nanoparticles at different aging time: 1–30, 2–60, 3–90, 4–120, and 5–180 min. Figure 5 shows the UV–vis spectra of the PVC samples without ZnO nanoparticles after treatment at 180 °C. Figure 5 is shown there are conjugated double bonds with chain length ranging from 3 to 9 carbon atoms in the PVC samples without ZnO nanoparticles during the aging process and the conjugated double bonds with chain length about 3–5 carbon atoms are in the majority, also. All the concentrations of the conjugated double bonds are increased with increasing the aging time correspondingly.

In this paper, the relation between UV–vis spectra of PVC samples filled with different content of zinc oxide nanoparticles as 1–0, 2–1, and 3–5 wt. % is investigated. The UV–vis spectra of the PVC resin filled with different composition of ZnO nanoparticles aged at 185 °C for 120 min 185 °C for 120 min are shown in Fig. 6. The effects of UV degradation on PVC that require a long service life can be measured with accelerated exposure tests. Photo degradation of PVC containing nanoparticulates of zinc oxide has been studied to follow the development of oxidation products in the polymer film and to monitor carbon dioxide evolved as a principal product of oxidation. Under UV exposure, the presence of ZnO accelerated the development of carbonyl groups. The carbonyl group development was more rapid when ZnO nanoparticles were used. Carbonyl group development seemed to correlate better with the decreasing in mechanical properties, whereas CO2 generation correlated better with weight change measurements.

Figure 6 states the thermal stability of the PVC resin has been improved when filled with ZnO nanoparticles. Conjugated double bonds content with different chain length are fewer than that of the PVC without ZnO nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the more the ZnO nanoparticles are filled into the PVC, the lower the content of the conjugated double bonds after aging is. On the other hand, the content of the conjugated double bonds with shorter chain length from 3 to 5 carbon atoms is decreased when the ZnO nanoparticles are filled into the PVC samples remarkably. On the contrary, the content of the conjugated double bonds with longer chain length from 6 to 8 carbon atoms does not change much. The UV–vis spectra of the PVC filled with 1 wt. % of ZnO nanoparticles solution for different aging time are presented in Fig. 7.

Figure 7 shows UV–vis spectra of PVC samples filled with 1 wt. % of zinc oxide nanoparticles for different aging time: 1–30, 2–60, 3–120, and 4–180 min.

Figure 7 shows that there are mainly conjugated double bonds with chain length about 5–7 during the initial step of the aging process (0–60 min). The content of the conjugated double bonds with chain length about 5–7 does not change much with increasing the aging time from 60 to 120 min, but the content of other conjugated double bonds with longer chain length is increased. The content of the conjugated double bonds with longer chain length is increased during the final step of the aging process (120–180 min), apparently. However, the content of the conjugated double bonds with shorter chain length is almost fixed. It is obvious that the fill of the ZnO nanoparticles solution inhibits the increase of the content of the conjugated double bonds with shorter chain length during the aging process of the PVC resin. The author considers that the degradation of the PVC resin is mainly based on the ionic mechanism before the fill of ZnO nanoparticles [20,21]. The hydrogen chloride gas is let out, which has catalysis on the thermal degradation of the PVC resin during this process. Because there are many situations in the PVC chains that can lead to the making of ionic degradation, the content of the conjugated double bonds with shorter chain length is relatively high in a certain time periodic if the thermal degradation of PVC samples is mainly based on the ionic mechanism. The property of ZnO nanoparticle's electropositive and its ability to absorb the hydrogen chloride gas obtained from the degradation of the PVC can inhibit or slower the degradation process in ionic mechanism and the degradation of the PVC is mainly based on free radical mechanism, finally. The initiated positions for the degradation in free radical mechanism are mainly near the propenyl chlorines, which are fewer than the positions for the degradation in ionic mechanism. Therefore, the content of the conjugated double bonds with longer chain length is increased greatly in the degradation product. As a whole, the function of the ZnO nanoparticles is to absorb the hydrogen chloride gas resulted from the thermal degradation of the PVC, prevent the degradation process in ionic mechanism and hence strengthen the thermal stability of the PVC resin under the co-interaction with Sn, finally.

The analysis of physical properties of the ZnO component revealed that the nano-ZnO particles showed effects on the elongation at break of the materials. The UV light fastness of the PVC which is mixed with ZnO nanoparticles is improved, which may be attributed to the absorption of zinc oxide nanoparticles against UV light.

  1. (1)The mixed fill of ZnO nanoparticles solution and Sn in PVC resin can greatly improve the thermal stability of the produced PVC and its thermal stability is gradually increased with the increase of the content of the ZnO nanoparticles.
  2. (2)Because the ZnO nanoparticles solution shows alkali property, it can absorb hydrogen chloride gas resulted from the degradation of PVC, which inhibits the degradation process of the PVC in ionic mechanism and hence improves the thermal stability of the produced PVC resin.

Jongchul, S., Gwonyoung, J., EUi Sung, J., Sher, B. K., and Haksoo, H., 2011, “Preparation and Properties of Poly (Propylene Carbonate) and Nanosized ZnO Composite Films for Packaging Applications” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122, pp. 1101–1108. [CrossRef]
Wang, H., Xu, P., Zhong, W., Shen, L., Du, Q., 2005, “Transparent Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)/Silica/Zirconia Nanocomposites With Excellent Thermal Stabilities,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 87, pp. 319–327. [CrossRef]
Marquis, D. M., Guillaume, E., Camillo, A., Rogaume, T., and Richard, F., 2013, “Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions of a Differential Equation System Modeling the Thermal Decomposition of Polymer Materials,” Combust. Flame, 160, pp. 818–829. [CrossRef]
Liu, J.-J., Liu, Z.-L., Cheng, J., and Fang, D., 2013, “Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Catalytic Effect on Thermal Decomposition of RDX and AP: An Energetic Coordination Polymer [Pb2(C5H3N5O5)2(NMP)·NMP]n,” J. Solid State Chem., 200, pp. 43–48. [CrossRef]
Bao, Y. Z., Huang, Z., and Li, S. X., 2008, “Thermal Stability, Smoke Emission and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)/Hydrotalcite Nanocomposites,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 93, pp. 448–455. [CrossRef]
Folarin, O. M., Eromosele, I. C., and Eromosele, C. O., 2011, “Stabilizing Effect of Metal Carboxylates of Balanites Aegyptiaca Seed Oil (BSO) on Poly (Vinyl Chloride),” Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6, p. 4323. [CrossRef]
Rouabeh, K., Schmitt, C., Elaoud, S., Hadj-Taïeb, E., and Pluvinage, G., 2012, “Failure of Grey Cast Iron Water Pipe Due to Resonance Phenomenon,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 26, pp. 120–128. [CrossRef]
Pinto, J., Varum, H., and Ramos, L., 2011, “Two Roofs of Recent Public Buildings, the Same Technological Failure,” Eng. Failure Anal., 18, pp. 811–817. [CrossRef]
Liu, F., Liu, H., Li, X., Zhao, H., Zhu, D., Zheng, Y., and Li, Ch., 2012 “Nano TiO2@Ag/PVC Film With Enhanced Antibacterial Activities and Photocatalytic Properties,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 258, pp. 4667–4671. [CrossRef]
Liufu, S. C., Xiao, H. N., and Li, Y. P., 2005, “Thermal Analysis and Degradation Mechanism of Polyacrylate/ZnO Nanocomposites,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 87, pp. 103–110. [CrossRef]
Byrant, Dr., 2007, “Determination of a Conjugated Chain Length Using the Particle in a Box Model,” CHEM 341 Lab, Lab Partners: Fiona Mills-Groninger, Michael Poe & Jordan Walberry, Experiment Performed Sept. 13.
Pei, H., Li, W., Liu, Y., Wang, D., Wang, J., Shi, J., and Cao, S., 2012, “Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Norbornene Derivatives for Multifunctionalized All-Optical Photorefractive Polymers With a Non-Conjugated Main Chain,” Polymer, 53, pp. 138–144. [CrossRef]
Chanakul, A., Traiphol, N., and Traiphol, R., 2013, “Controlling the Reversible Thermochromism of Polydiacetylene/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites by Varying Alkyl Chain Length,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 389, pp. 106–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mergen, A., İpek, Y., Bölek, H., and Öksüz, M., 2012, “Production of Nano Zinc Borate (4ZnO·B2O3·H2O) and Its Effect on PVC,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 32, pp. 2001–2005. [CrossRef]
Hongqiang, W., Caihong, L., Haigang, Z., and Jinrong, L., 2013, “Preparation of Nano-Sized Flower-Like ZnO Bunches by a Direct Precipitation Method,” Adv. Powder Technol., 24, pp. 599–604. [CrossRef]
Wahab, H. A., Salama, A. A., El-Saeid, A. A., Nur, O., Willander, M., and Battisha, I. K., 2013, “Optical, Structural and Morphological Studies of (ZnO) Nano-Rod Thin Films for Biosensor Applications Using Sol Gel Technique,” Result. Phys., 3, pp. 46–51. [CrossRef]
Blasi, C. D., and Galgano, A., 2013, “Influences of Properties and Heating Characteristics on the Thermal Decomposition of Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites,” Fire Saf. J., 59, pp. 166–177. [CrossRef]
Mahmoud, W. E., and Al-Ghamdi, A. A., 2011, “The Influence of Cd (ZnO) on the Structure, Optical and Thermal Stabilities of Polyvinyl Chloride Nanocomposites,” Polym. Compos, 32, pp. 1143–1147. [CrossRef]
Chrissafis, K., and Bikiaris, D., 2011, “Can Nanoparticles Really Enhance Thermal Stability of Polymers? Part I: An Overview on Thermal Decomposition of Addition Polymers,” Thermochim. Acta, 523, pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
LatifI., AL-Abodi EntisarE., Badri DhefafH., and Khafagi JawadAl, 2012, “Preparation, Characterization and Electrical Study of (Carboxymethylated Polyvinyl Alcohol/ZnO) Nanocomposites,” Am. J. Polym. Sci., 2(6), pp. 135–140. [CrossRef]
Hassan OmerA., Otaiwi Ali.M., and AbeerA., 2008, “Photodegradation Study of PVC by New Metal Complexes of Thiourea Derivatives,” Natl. J. Chem., 31, pp. 501–513. Available at http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=45921
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References

Jongchul, S., Gwonyoung, J., EUi Sung, J., Sher, B. K., and Haksoo, H., 2011, “Preparation and Properties of Poly (Propylene Carbonate) and Nanosized ZnO Composite Films for Packaging Applications” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122, pp. 1101–1108. [CrossRef]
Wang, H., Xu, P., Zhong, W., Shen, L., Du, Q., 2005, “Transparent Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)/Silica/Zirconia Nanocomposites With Excellent Thermal Stabilities,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 87, pp. 319–327. [CrossRef]
Marquis, D. M., Guillaume, E., Camillo, A., Rogaume, T., and Richard, F., 2013, “Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions of a Differential Equation System Modeling the Thermal Decomposition of Polymer Materials,” Combust. Flame, 160, pp. 818–829. [CrossRef]
Liu, J.-J., Liu, Z.-L., Cheng, J., and Fang, D., 2013, “Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Catalytic Effect on Thermal Decomposition of RDX and AP: An Energetic Coordination Polymer [Pb2(C5H3N5O5)2(NMP)·NMP]n,” J. Solid State Chem., 200, pp. 43–48. [CrossRef]
Bao, Y. Z., Huang, Z., and Li, S. X., 2008, “Thermal Stability, Smoke Emission and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)/Hydrotalcite Nanocomposites,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 93, pp. 448–455. [CrossRef]
Folarin, O. M., Eromosele, I. C., and Eromosele, C. O., 2011, “Stabilizing Effect of Metal Carboxylates of Balanites Aegyptiaca Seed Oil (BSO) on Poly (Vinyl Chloride),” Int. J. Phys. Sci., 6, p. 4323. [CrossRef]
Rouabeh, K., Schmitt, C., Elaoud, S., Hadj-Taïeb, E., and Pluvinage, G., 2012, “Failure of Grey Cast Iron Water Pipe Due to Resonance Phenomenon,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 26, pp. 120–128. [CrossRef]
Pinto, J., Varum, H., and Ramos, L., 2011, “Two Roofs of Recent Public Buildings, the Same Technological Failure,” Eng. Failure Anal., 18, pp. 811–817. [CrossRef]
Liu, F., Liu, H., Li, X., Zhao, H., Zhu, D., Zheng, Y., and Li, Ch., 2012 “Nano TiO2@Ag/PVC Film With Enhanced Antibacterial Activities and Photocatalytic Properties,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 258, pp. 4667–4671. [CrossRef]
Liufu, S. C., Xiao, H. N., and Li, Y. P., 2005, “Thermal Analysis and Degradation Mechanism of Polyacrylate/ZnO Nanocomposites,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., 87, pp. 103–110. [CrossRef]
Byrant, Dr., 2007, “Determination of a Conjugated Chain Length Using the Particle in a Box Model,” CHEM 341 Lab, Lab Partners: Fiona Mills-Groninger, Michael Poe & Jordan Walberry, Experiment Performed Sept. 13.
Pei, H., Li, W., Liu, Y., Wang, D., Wang, J., Shi, J., and Cao, S., 2012, “Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization of Norbornene Derivatives for Multifunctionalized All-Optical Photorefractive Polymers With a Non-Conjugated Main Chain,” Polymer, 53, pp. 138–144. [CrossRef]
Chanakul, A., Traiphol, N., and Traiphol, R., 2013, “Controlling the Reversible Thermochromism of Polydiacetylene/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites by Varying Alkyl Chain Length,” J. Colloid Interface Sci., 389, pp. 106–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mergen, A., İpek, Y., Bölek, H., and Öksüz, M., 2012, “Production of Nano Zinc Borate (4ZnO·B2O3·H2O) and Its Effect on PVC,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 32, pp. 2001–2005. [CrossRef]
Hongqiang, W., Caihong, L., Haigang, Z., and Jinrong, L., 2013, “Preparation of Nano-Sized Flower-Like ZnO Bunches by a Direct Precipitation Method,” Adv. Powder Technol., 24, pp. 599–604. [CrossRef]
Wahab, H. A., Salama, A. A., El-Saeid, A. A., Nur, O., Willander, M., and Battisha, I. K., 2013, “Optical, Structural and Morphological Studies of (ZnO) Nano-Rod Thin Films for Biosensor Applications Using Sol Gel Technique,” Result. Phys., 3, pp. 46–51. [CrossRef]
Blasi, C. D., and Galgano, A., 2013, “Influences of Properties and Heating Characteristics on the Thermal Decomposition of Polymer/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites,” Fire Saf. J., 59, pp. 166–177. [CrossRef]
Mahmoud, W. E., and Al-Ghamdi, A. A., 2011, “The Influence of Cd (ZnO) on the Structure, Optical and Thermal Stabilities of Polyvinyl Chloride Nanocomposites,” Polym. Compos, 32, pp. 1143–1147. [CrossRef]
Chrissafis, K., and Bikiaris, D., 2011, “Can Nanoparticles Really Enhance Thermal Stability of Polymers? Part I: An Overview on Thermal Decomposition of Addition Polymers,” Thermochim. Acta, 523, pp. 1–24. [CrossRef]
LatifI., AL-Abodi EntisarE., Badri DhefafH., and Khafagi JawadAl, 2012, “Preparation, Characterization and Electrical Study of (Carboxymethylated Polyvinyl Alcohol/ZnO) Nanocomposites,” Am. J. Polym. Sci., 2(6), pp. 135–140. [CrossRef]
Hassan OmerA., Otaiwi Ali.M., and AbeerA., 2008, “Photodegradation Study of PVC by New Metal Complexes of Thiourea Derivatives,” Natl. J. Chem., 31, pp. 501–513. Available at http://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=45921

Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM photos of nanoparticles in two different visions (a) in the scale of 5 μm and (b) in the scale of 500 nm

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Fig. 2

Thermal decomposition time curves of different samples: treated with ZnO nanoparticles and untreated

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Fig. 3

Thermal decomposition temperature of sample in different nanoparticle composition

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Fig. 4

The relationship between UV–vis absorption wavelength and the conjugated chain length

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Fig. 5

UV–vis spectra of PVC samples without ZnO nanoparticles at different aging time: 1–30, 2–60, 3–90, 4–120, and 5–180 min

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Fig. 6

UV–vis spectra of PVC samples filled with different content of ZnO nanoparticles: 1–0, 2–1, and 3–5 wt. %

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

UV–vis spectra of PVC samples filled with 1 wt. % ZnO nanoparticles for different aging time: 1–30, 2–60, 3–120, and 4–180 min

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