Section III—Production of High–Added-Value Chemicals From Biomass Using Nanomaterials—comprises the last four chapters, covering a design of nanostructured solid acidic catalyst and supported metal catalysts for the conversion of a wide range of starting biomass materials toward platform chemicals and end products. In Chapter 8—Nanostructured Solid Catalysts in the Conversion of Cellulose and Cellulose-Derived Platform Chemicals—Lignocellulose, as the major component of plant materials, can be converted into platform chemicals with subsequent processing into value-added chemicals by heterogeneous catalysis. The first step can be achieved by hydrolysis over solid acids or hydrolytic hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis over bifunctional solid catalysts, while the second one can be obtained by either catalytic oxidation or reduction reactions over solid catalysts. To tackle the bottleneck of limited contact interface between the solid catalysts and solid substrate, the context details the design of nanostructured solid acidic catalysts including transition metal oxides, zeolites, acidic-ion-exchanged resins, magnetic functionalized sulfonated silica, silica–carbon composites, sulfonated carbon materials for this initial step. The authors provide a general overview of oxidation and reduction of HMF and furfural over developed solid supported metal catalysts (support effect, particle size effect, bimetallic catalysts, etc.) for the production of value-added products from platform chemicals. Chapter 9—Chemocatalytic Processes for the Production of Bio-Based Chemicals From Carbohydrates—focuses on the industrial practice for carbohydrates transformation to many value-added chemicals, including furfural production from oat husks by Quaker Oats Co., 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid from hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)/5-methoxymethylfurfural (MMF) by Avantium chemicals, p-xylene from glucose by GEVO, hydrocarbons from a glucose/xylose 97/3 mixture using BioForming process by Virent, aromatics from pure glucose by Annellotech, ethylene and glycols from glucose by Braskem, and isosorbide from sorbitol by Roquette. Due to the significant loss of mass during oxygen elimination in carbohydrate conversion, product yield is relatively low. The catalysts other than commercial ones discussed in this chapter show a higher selectivity/yield toward the desired products, indicating a rational design of heterogeneous catalysts could be a driver for the economic production of bio-based chemicals. Synthesis of Fine Chemicals Using Catalytic Nanomaterials: Structure Sensitivity is presented in Chapter 10. Particle size is found to have a profound effect on activity, selectivity and stability in structure sensitivity reactions. In continuation with biomass valorization, two case studies are presented and the concept is illustrated: isomerization of α-pinene to camphene and hydrogenation of thymol to methanol. Such an insight can be extended into structure sensitive chemistries of other case studies during biomass valorization. The Last Chapter—Tunable Biomass Transformations by Means of Photocatalytic Nanomaterials—summarizes the application of nanosized TiO2 synthesized by sol-gel method for biomass transformation via photocatalysis, with three examples on water splitting, photocatalytic reforming, and photocatalytic transformations of biomass into high-value chemicals (e.g., photocatalytic oxidation of glucose into glucaric acid and gluconic acid with minimal total mineralization toward CO2 and H2O; transformation of malic acid into formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid). In order to design a highly active and selective TiO2-based photocatalyst with better spectral sensitivity, a few strategies should be considered, such as noble cocatalyst addition, anatase–rutile phase junction formation, strong metal–support interaction effect, ultrasound assistance in the sol–gel method.