0
Research Papers

One-Pot Shear Synthesis of Gallium, Indium, and Indium–Bismuth Nanofluids: An Experimental and Computational Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Anne K. Starace

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
15013 Denver West Parkway,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: anne.starace@nrel.gov

Joongoo Kang

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
15013 Denver West Parkway,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: Joongoo.Kang@nrel.gov

Junyi Zhu

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
15013 Denver West Parkway,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: jyzhu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk

Judith C. Gomez

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
15013 Denver West Parkway,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: Judith.Gomez@nrel.gov

Greg C. Glatzmaier

National Renewable Energy Laboratory,
15013 Denver West Parkway,
Golden, CO 80401
e-mail: Greg.Glatzmaier@nrel.gov

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 21, 2014; final manuscript received June 7, 2014; published online July 8, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Abraham Wang. The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(4), 041004 (Jul 08, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: NANO-14-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4027854 History: Received May 21, 2014; Revised June 07, 2014

Nanofluids are often proposed as advanced heat transfer fluids. In this work, using a one-step nanoemulsification method, we synthesize gallium, indium, and indium–bismuth nanofluids in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO). The size distributions of the resulting nanoparticles are analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the alloy nanoparticles indicates that their composition is the same as that of the bulk alloy. It was found that oleylamine stabilizes both gallium and indium particles in PAO, while oleic acid is effective for gallium particles only. The microscopic adsorption mechanism of surfactants on gallium and indium surfaces is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) to understand why oleylamine is effective for both metals while oleic acid is effective for gallium only.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Taylor, R., Coulombe, S., Otanicar, T., Phelan, P., Gunawan, A., Lv, W., Rosengarten, G., Prasher, R., and Tyagi, H., 2013, “Small Particles, Big Impacts: A Review of the Diverse Applications of Nanofluids,” J. Appl. Phys., 113(1), p. 011301. [CrossRef]
Beck, M. P., Yuan, Y., Warrier, P., and Teja, A. S., 2008, “The Effect of Particle Size on the Thermal Conductivity of Alumina Nanofluids,” J. Nanopart. Res., 11(5), pp. 1129–1136. [CrossRef]
Saidur, R., Kazi, S. N., Hossain, M. S., Rahman, M. M., and Mohammed, H. A., 2011, “A Review on the Performance of Nanoparticles Suspended With Refrigerants and Lubricating Oils in Refrigeration Systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(1), pp. 310–323. [CrossRef]
Shaikh, S., Lafdi, K., and Ponnappan, R., 2007, “Thermal Conductivity Improvement in Carbon Nanoparticle Doped PAO Oil: An Experimental Study,” J. Appl. Phys., 101(6), p. 064302. [CrossRef]
Kang, H., Kim, S., and Oh, J., 2006, “Estimation of Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluid Using Experimental Effective Particle Volume,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 19(3), pp. 181–191. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X., Gu, H., and Fujii, M., 2006, “Effective Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Nanofluids Containing Spherical and Cylindrical Nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys., 100(4), p. 044325. [CrossRef]
Otanicar, T. P., Patrick, P. E., Prasher, R. S., Rosengarten, G., and Taylor, R. A., 2010, “Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector,” J. Renewable Sustainable Energy, 2(3), p. 033102. [CrossRef]
Otanicar, T. P., Phelan, P. E., Taylor, R. A., and Tyagi, H., 2011, “Spatially Varying Extinction Coefficient for Direct Absorption Solar Thermal Collector Optimization,” ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng., 133(2), p. 024501. [CrossRef]
Han, Z. H., Cao, F. Y., and Yang, B., 2008, “Synthesis and Thermal Characterization of Phase-Changeable Indium/polyalphaolefin Nanofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 92(24), p. 243104. [CrossRef]
Chen, H.-J., and Wen, D., 2011, “Ultrasonic-Aided Fabrication of Gold Nanofluids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6. [CrossRef]
Heyraud, J. C., and Métois, J. J., 1986, “Surface Free Energy Anisotropy Measurement of Indium,” Surf. Sci., 177, pp. 213–220. [CrossRef]
Perdew, J. P., Burke, K., and Ernzerhof, M., 1996, “Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, pp. 3865–3868. [CrossRef]
Kresse, G., and Furthmüller, J., 1996, “Ab initio Calculations of the Cohesive, Elastic, and Dynamical Properties of CoSi2 by Pseudopotential and All-Electron Techniques,” Phys. Rev. B, 54(3), pp. 1729–1734. [CrossRef]
Blöchl, P. B., 1994, “Projector Augmented-Wave Method,” Phys. Rev. B, 50, 17953. [CrossRef]
Kresse, G., and Joubert, D., 1999, “From Ultrasoft Pseudopotentials to the Projector Augmented-Wave Method,” Phys. Rev. B, 59, pp. 1758–1775. [CrossRef]
Taylor, G. I., 1934, “The Formation of Emulsions in Definable Fields of Flow,” Proc. R. Soc. A, 146(858), pp. 501–523. [CrossRef]
Garland, E. R., Rosen, E. P., Clarke, L. I., and Baer, T., 2008, “Structure of Submonolayer Oleic Acid Coverages on Inorganic Aerosol Particles: Evidence of Island Formation,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 10, pp. 3156–3161. [CrossRef]
McGinty, S. M., Kapala, M. K., and Niedziela, R. F., 2009, “Mid-Infrared Complex Refractive Indices for Oleic Acid and Optical Properties of Model Oleic Acid/Water Aerosols,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, pp. 7998–8004. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Examples of TEM micrographs of (a) gallium and (b) indium particles used to measure particle sizes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

XRD spectra of bulk In–Bi alloy (bottom trace) and In–Bi nanoparticles (top trace)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Adsorption of oleylamine on (a) Ga (010) and (b) In (111) surfaces. The areal densities of the adsorbates on the Ga and In surfaces are 0.47 molecule/nm2 and 0.36 molecule/nm2, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Adsorption of oleic acid on Ga (010) surfaces. (a) Dimeric structure of oleic acid. Possible adsorption structures for (b) physisorption and (c) chemisorption of oleic acid on the Ga surfaces. The areal density of the adsorbates is 0.47 molecule/nm2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Particle size histogram of nanofluid In–Bi-1-ii

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Particle size histogram of nanofluid In–Bi-1-i

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Particle size histogram of nanofluid I-1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-9

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-4-iii

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-4-ii

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-4-i

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Particle size histogram of nanofluid Ga-1

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In