0
Research Papers

Evolution of Nanofluid Rayleigh–Bénard Flows Between Two Parallel Plates: A Mesoscopic Modeling Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Gui Lu

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science
and Power Engineering of MOE,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China;
Institute of Thermal Engineering,
Beijing Jiaotong University,
Beijing 100044, China

Yuan-Yuan Duan

Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and
Power Engineering of MOE,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn

Xiao-Dong Wang

State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power
System with Renewable Energy Sources,
North China Electric Power University,
Beijing 102206, China;
Beijing Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and
Heat Transfer for Low Grade Energy,
North China Electric Power University,
Beijing 102206, China
e-mail: wangxd99@gmail.com

1Corresponding authors

Manuscript received January 17, 2014; final manuscript received July 1, 2014; published online August 8, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Calvin Li.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(4), 040905 (Aug 08, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: NANO-14-1003; doi: 10.1115/1.4027987 History: Received January 17, 2014; Revised July 01, 2014

The developing and developed nanofluid Rayleigh–Bénard flows between two parallel plates was simulated using the mesoscopic thermal lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM). The coupled effects of the thermal conductivity and the dynamic viscosity on the evolution of Rayleigh–Bénard flows were examined using different particle volume fractions (1–4%), while the individual effects of the thermal conductivity and the dynamic viscosity were tested using various particle sizes (11 nm, 20 nm, and 30 nm) and nanoparticle types (Al2O3, Cu, and CuO2). Two different heating modes were also considered. The results show that Rayleigh–Bénard cell in nanofluids is significantly different from that in pure fluids. The stable convection cells in nanofluids come from the expansion and shedding of an initial vortex pair, while the flow begins suddenly in pure water when the Rayleigh number reaches a critical value. Therefore, the average Nusselt number increases gradually for nanofluids but sharply for pure liquids. Uniform fully developed flow cells with fewer but larger vortex pairs are generated with the bottom heating with nanofluids than with pure liquid, with extremely tiny vortexes confined near the top heating plate for top heating. The number of vortex pairs decreases with increasing nanoparticle volume fraction and particle diameter due to the increasing of dynamic viscosity. The average Nusselt number increases with the increasing Rayleigh number, while decreases with the increasing nanoparticle diameters. The nanoparticle types have little effect on the Rayleigh–Bénard flow patterns. The Rayleigh–Bénard flows are more sensitive with the dynamic viscosity than the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

de Vahl Davis, G., and Jones, I. P., 1983, “Natural Convection in a Square Cavity: A Bench Mark Numerical Solution,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 3, pp. 227–248. [CrossRef]
Guenter, A., Siegfried, G., and Detlef, L., 2009, “Heat Transfer and Large Scale Dynamics in Turbulent Rayleigh–Benard Convection,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 81, pp. 503–537. [CrossRef]
Olga, S., and Andre, T., 2009, “Mean Temperature Profiles in Turbulent Rayleigh–Benard Convection of Water,” J. Fluid Mech., 633, pp. 449–460. [CrossRef]
Stevens, R. J., Lohse, D., and Verzicco, R., 2011, “Prandtl and Rayleigh Number Dependence of Heat Transport in High Rayleigh Number Thermal Convection,” J. Fluid Mech., 688, pp. 31–43. [CrossRef]
Grants, I., and Gerbeth, G., 2012, “Transition Between Turbulent Magnetically Driven Flow States in a Rayleigh–Benard Cell,” Phys. Fluids, 24, p. 024103. [CrossRef]
He, X. Z., Funfschilling, D., and Nobach, H., 2012, “Transition to the Ultimate State of Turbulent Rayleigh–Benard Convection,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, p. 024502. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Prosperetti, A., 2011, “A Simple Analytic Approximation to the Rayleigh–Benard Stability Threshold,” Phys. Fluids, 23, p. 124101. [CrossRef]
Haddad, Z., Abu-Nada, E., Oztop, H. F., and Mataoui, A., 2012, “Natural Convection in Nanofluids: Are the Thermophoresis and Brownian Motion Effects Significant in Nanofluid Heat Transfer Enhancement?,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 57, pp. 152–162. [CrossRef]
Corcione, M., 2011, “Rayleigh–Benard Convection Heat Transfer in Nanoparticle Suspensions,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 32, pp. 65–77. [CrossRef]
Saidur, R., Leong, K. Y., and Mohammad, A., 2011, “A Review on Applications and Challenges of Nanofluids,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15, pp. 1646–1668. [CrossRef]
Fan, J., and Wang, L. Q., 2011, “Review of Heat Conduction in Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 133, p. 040801. [CrossRef]
Lee, S., Choi, S. U., and Li, S., 1999, “Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Fluids Containing Oxide Nanoparticles,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 121, pp. 280–289. [CrossRef]
Paul, G., Chopkar, M., and Manna, I., 2010, “Techniques for Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids: A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 14, pp. 1913–1924. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. W., Xu, F., and Choi, S. U., 1999, “Thermal Conductivity of Nanoparticle–Fluid Mixture,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 13, pp. 474–480. [CrossRef]
Sarit, K. D., Nandy, P., and Peter, T., 2003, “Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125, pp. 567–574. [CrossRef]
Murshed, S. M. S., Leong, K. C., and Yang, C., 2008, “Investigations of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 47, pp. 560–568. [CrossRef]
Putra, N., Roetzel, W., and Das, S. K., 2003, “Natural Convection of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 57, pp. 152–162. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J., Liu, W. K., Chang, Y. S., and Lin, C. C., 2010, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Alumina–Water Nanofluid in Vertical Square Enclosures: An Experimental Study,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49, pp. 1345–1353. [CrossRef]
Wen, D., and Ding, Y., 2005, “Formulation of Nanofluids for Natural Convective Heat Transfer Applications,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 26, pp. 855–864. [CrossRef]
Nnanna, A. G. A., 2007, “Experimental Model of Temperature-Driven Nanofluid,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129, pp. 697–704. [CrossRef]
Li, C. H., and Peterson, G. P., 2010, “Experimental Studies of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Al2O3/DI Water Nanoparticle Suspensions (Nanofluids),” Adv. Mech. Eng., 2010, p. 742739. [CrossRef]
Haddad, X., Oztop, H. F., Abu-Nada, E., and Mataoui, A., 2012,” A Review on Natural Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16, pp. 5363–5378. [CrossRef]
Abouali, O., and Falahatpisheh, A., 2009, “Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection of Al2O3 Nanofluids in Vertical Annuli,” J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49, pp. 15–23. [CrossRef]
Abu-Nada, E., 2009, “Effects of Variable Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of Al2O3-Water Nanofluid on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Natural Convection,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 30, pp. 679–690. [CrossRef]
Abu-Nada, E., 2011, “Rayleigh-Bénard Convection in Nanofluids: Effect of Temperature Dependent Properties,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50, pp. 1720–1730. [CrossRef]
Li, K. C., and Violi, A., 2010, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Vertical Cavity: Effects of Non-Uniform Particle Diameter and Temperature on Thermal Conductivity,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 3, pp. 236–245. [CrossRef]
Santra, A. K., Sen, S., and Chakraborty, N., 2008, “ Study of Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Differentially Heated Square Cavity Using Copper-Water Nanofluid,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 47, pp. 1113–1122. [CrossRef]
Rashmi, W., Ismail, A. F., and Khalid, M., 2011, “CFD Studies on Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Al2O3–Water Nanofluids,” Heat Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 1301–1310. [CrossRef]
Ho, C. J., Chen, M. W., and Li, Z. W., 2008, “Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection of Nanofluid in a Square Enclosure: Effects Due to Uncertainties of Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 51, pp. 4506–4516. [CrossRef]
Cianfrini, M., Corcione, M., and Quintino, A., 2011, “Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Annular Spaces Between Horizontal Concentric Cylinders,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31, pp. 4055–4063. [CrossRef]
Fattahi, E., Farhadi, M., and Sedighi, K., 2011, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 52, pp. 137–144. [CrossRef]
Lai, F. H., and Yang, Y. T., 2011, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Al2O3/Water Nanofluids in a Square Enclosure,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 50, pp. 1930–1941. [CrossRef]
Yang, Y. T., and Lai, F. H., 2011, “Numerical Study of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Alumina-Water Nanofluids in a Microchannel Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, pp. 607–614. [CrossRef]
Nabavitabatabayi, M., Shirani, E., and Rahimian, M. H., 2011, “Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Enclosure Filled With Nanofluids Using Multiple Relaxation Time Lattice Boltzmann Modeling,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, pp. 128–138. [CrossRef]
Bararnia, H., Hooman, K., and Ganji, D. D., 2011, “Natural Convection in a Nanofluids-Filled Portioned Cavity: The Lattice-Boltzmann Method,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 59, pp. 487–502. [CrossRef]
Kefayati, Gh. R., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., and Gorji, M., 2012, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection in an Open Enclosure Subjugated to Water/Copper Nanofluid,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 52, pp. 91–101. [CrossRef]
Kefayati, Gh. R., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., and Gorji, M., 2011, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Natural Convection in Tall Enclosures Using Water/SiO2 Nanofluid,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38, pp. 798–805. [CrossRef]
He, Y. R., Qi, C., and Hu, Y. W., 2011, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Alumina-Water Nanofluid in a Square Cavity,” Nanoscale Res. Lett., 6. [CrossRef]
Nemati, H., Farhadi, M., and Sedighi, K., 2010, “Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Nanofluid in Lid-Driven Cavity,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37, pp. 1528–1534. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y. M., Yu, K., and Li, Q., 2005, “Investigation on Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluids by the Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model,” Prog. Comput. Fluid Dyn., 5, pp. 13–19. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y. M., Li, Q., and Yao, Z. P., 2004, “Application of Lattice Boltzmann Scheme to Nanofluids,” Sci. China, Ser. E, 47, pp. 129–140. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y. M., and Yao, Z. P., 2005, “Lattice Boltzmann Model for Nanofluids,” Heat Mass Transfer, 41(3), pp. 199–205. [CrossRef]
Zhou, L. J., Xuan, Y. M., and Li, Q., 2010, “Multiscale Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid With Lattice Boltzmann Method,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 36, pp. 364–374. [CrossRef]
Zou, Q., Hou, S., and Chen, S., 1995, “An Improved Incompressible Lattice Boltzmann Model for Time-Independent Flows,” J. Stat. Phys., 81, pp. 35–48. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, Y., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Submicron Metallic Oxide Particle,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y., and Roetzel, W., 2004, “Conceptions for Heat Transfer Correlation of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 3701–3707. [CrossRef]
Chon, C. H., Kihm, K. D., Lee, S. P., and Choi, S. U., 2005, “Empirical Correlation Finding the Role of Temperature and Particle Size for Nanofluid (Al2O3) Thermal Conductivity Enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 87, p. 153107. [CrossRef]
Saha, L. K., Hossain, M. A., and Gorla, R. S. R., 2007, “Effect of Hall Current on the MHD Laminar Natural Convection Flow From a Vertical Permeable Flat Plate With Uniform Surface Temperature,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 46, pp. 790–801. [CrossRef]
Corcione, M., 2011, “Empirical Correlating Equations for Predicting the Effective Thermal Conductivity and Dynamic Viscosity of Nanofluids,” Energy Convers. Manage., 52, pp. 789–793. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of a Rayleigh–Bénard cell

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Computational grid and boundary conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Natural convection of water-based Al2O3 nanofluids with ϕ = 0.3% in a square cavity: (a) Stream function and (b) temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Evolution of Rayleigh–Bénard cells in a water-based Al2O3 nanofluid (ϕ = 1.5%, 10 nm, top heating)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Stream function and temperature fields at y/y0 = 0.5 for Al2O3 nanofluid (ϕ = 1.5%, 10 nm, top heating): (a) Stream function and (b) temperature difference

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effects of heating mode on the Rayleigh–Bénard flows for the water-based Al2O3 nanofluid (ϕ = 1.5%, 10 nm, bottom heating): (a) Stream function for top heating at Rac = 1 × 106; (b) stream function for bottom heating at Rac = 5.5 × 105; (c) temperature for top heating at Rac = 1 × 106; (d) temperature for bottom heating at Rac = 5.5 × 105; and (e) stream function through the cell centers at Rac.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Average Nusselt number for pure water and the water-based Al2O3 nanofluid (ϕ = 1.5%, 10 nm, bottom heating)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effects of nanoparticle volume fraction (10 nm Al2O3, bottom heating) on the Rayleigh–Bénard flows at y/y0 = 0.5: (a) Stream function and (b) temperature difference

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effects of particle size on the average Nusselt number of nanofluid Rayleigh–Bénard flows (Al2O3, ϕ = 2%, bottom heating)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of nanoparticle size (Al2O3, ϕ = 2%, bottom heating): (a) Stream function at y/y0 = 0.5 and (b) temperature difference at y/y0 = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of nanoparticle material (ϕ = 2%, 10 nm, bottom heating): (a) Stream function at y/y0 = 0.5 and (b) temperature difference at y/y0 = 0.5

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In