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Research Papers

X-Ray Diffraction Analysis of Kraft Lignins and Lignin-Derived Carbon Nanofibers

[+] Author and Article Information
Azadeh Goudarzi

Department of Materials Engineering,
University of British Columbia,
6350 Stores Road,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
e-mail: goudarzi@mail.ubc.ca

Li-Ting Lin, Frank K. Ko

Department of Materials Engineering,
University of British Columbia,
6350 Stores Road,
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada

Manuscript received April 9, 2014; final manuscript received July 17, 2014; published online September 4, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 5(2), 021006 (Sep 04, 2014) (5 pages) Paper No: NANO-14-1032; doi: 10.1115/1.4028300 History: Received April 09, 2014; Revised July 17, 2014

Lignin is a renewable material and it is abundantly available as low priced industrial residue. Lignin-based carbon fibers are economically attractive and sustainable. In addition, remarkably oxidized molecule of the lignin decreases the required time and temperature of the thermostabilization process compared to other carbon fiber precursors such as polyacrylonitrile (PAN); and thus, decreases the processing cost of carbon fiber production. The fraction 4 of softwood Kraft lignin (SKL-F4) was previously shown to be spinnable via electrospinning to produce carbon nanofibers. In this paper, we characterized different Kraft lignin powders through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis to measure the mean size of the ordered domains in different fractionations of softwood and hardwood samples. According to our results, SKL-F4 has largest ordered domains among SKLs and highest hydroxyl content according to Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. In addition, variations in the XRD patterns during carbon nanofiber formation were studied and the peak for (101) plane in graphite was observed in the carbon nanofiber carbonized at 1000 °C.

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Figures

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Fig. 6

XRD patterns of the empty sample (a) empty holder, (b) SKL-F4 powder, (c) carbonized fiber mat, and (d) grinded carbonized sample. The SEM image of carbonized fiber mat, a schematic of carbonized fiber structure, and a schematic of sample preparation method are shown in the top right-hand side.

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Fig. 5

TGA analysis of the SKL-F4 (filled line: in air, dashed line: in nitrogen)

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Fig. 4

SEM images of the SKL-F4 nanofibers: (a) as-spun, (b) thermostabilized, and (c) carbonized sample. Scale bar is 10 μm, d is the average diameter of the fibers.

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Fig. 3

Carbon and sulfur content of the lignin powder based on EDS analysis (error bars: standard deviation, n>6)

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Fig. 2

XRD patterns of the lignin powders

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Fig. 1

FTIR spectra of lignin powders

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