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Research Papers

Raman Thermometry Based Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Bovine Cortical Bone as a Function of Compressive Stress

[+] Author and Article Information
Yang Zhang

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
701 W. Stadium Avenue, ARMS 3300,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: yangzhang@purdue.edu

Ming Gan

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
701 W. Stadium Avenue, ARMS 3300,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: ganm@purdue.edu

Vikas Tomar

Associate Professor
School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
701 W. Stadium Avenue, ARMS 3205,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 13, 2014; final manuscript received July 7, 2014; published online August 19, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Hsiao-Ying Shadow Huang.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 5(2), 021003 (Aug 19, 2014) (11 pages) Paper No: NANO-14-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4027989 History: Received April 13, 2014; Revised July 07, 2014

Biological materials such as bone have microstructure that incorporates a presence of a significant number of interfaces in a hierarchical manner that lead to a unique combination of properties such as toughness and hardness. However, studies regarding the influence of structural hierarchy in such materials on their physical properties such as thermal conductivity and its correlation with mechanical stress are limited. Such studies can point out important insights regarding the role of biological structural hierarchy in influencing multiphysical properties of materials. This work presents an analytic-experimental approach to establish stress–thermal conductivity correlation in bovine cortical bone as a function of nanomechanical compressive stress changes using Raman thermometry. Analyzes establish empirical relations between Raman shift and temperature as well as a relation between Raman shift and nanomechanical compressive stress. Analyzes verify earlier reported thermal conductivity results at 0% strain and at room temperature in the case of bovine cortical bone. In addition, measured trends and established thermal conductivity–stress relation indicates that the thermal conductivity values increase up to a threshold compressive stress value. On increasing stress beyond the threshold value, the thermal conductivity decreases as a function of increase in compressive strain. Interface reorganization versus interface related phonon wave blocking are the two competing mechanisms highlighted to affect such trend.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Bone samples preparation. (a) Steps of cutting the bone sample; (b) scaled images of the prepared cortical bone samples; and (c) SEM figure of longitudinal direction of the cortical bone sample.

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Fig. 2

(a) Overview of the experimental setup and (b) a schematic of the optical path of the experiments

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Fig. 3

(a) Sample and substrate and (b) front view of sample and substrate in cylindrical coordinate system (r, z)

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Fig. 4

Determination of laser spot size. (a) Fitting of the laser intensity and (b) differentiation of the laser intensity with respect to position and determination of the laser spot size by Gaussian fitting.

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Fig. 5

Intensity as a function of position in order to measure laser power

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Fig. 6

Gauss fitting curve of Raman shift

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Fig. 7

Correlation of temperature and Raman shift of cortical bone

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Fig. 8

Correlation of stress and Raman shift of cortical bone (a) sample 1—3 × 3 × 3 mm, (b) sample 2—2 × 2 × 3 mm, and (c) sample 3—1 × 2 × 3 mm

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Fig. 9

Relation between thermal conductivity and temperature increase at the laser spot

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Fig. 10

Thermal Conductivity of cortical bone (a) sample size 1 as a function of stress, (b) sample size 2 as a function of stress, and (c) sample size 3 as a function of stress

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