0
Technical Brief

Microwave Properties of Nanocomposites: Effect of Manufacturing Methods and Nanofiller Structure

[+] Author and Article Information
A. A. Khurram

Experimental Physics Labs,
National Centre for Physics,
Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
e-mail: khuram_qau@yahoo.com

Sobia A. Rakha, Naveed Ali

Experimental Physics Labs,
National Centre for Physics,
Islamabad 45320, Pakistan

I. H. Gul

School of Chemical and Materials Engineering,
NUST H-12,
Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

Arshad Munir

Centre of Excellence in Science and Advance Technologies,
Islamabad 45320, Pakistan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 16, 2014; final manuscript received February 16, 2015; published online March 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Debjyoti Banerjee.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 6(1), 014501 (Feb 01, 2015) (5 pages) Paper No: NANO-14-1061; doi: 10.1115/1.4029916 History: Received September 16, 2014; Revised February 16, 2015; Online March 12, 2015

Nanocomposite materials filled with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having three types of structures, i.e., longer (200 μm), shorter (20–50 μm), and aminated (20–50 μm), are manufactured for microwave absorption (MA) in 11–17 GHz frequency range. Microstructure, dielectric permittivity, direct current (DC) electrical conductivity, and MA properties of the MWCNTs–epoxy nanocomposite were investigated. A correlation has been developed between the structure (aspect ratio and surface functionality) of MWCNTs, electrical conductivity of the composite, and MA (return loss (RL)). E-glass/epoxy composite filled with longer carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has shown higher RL as compared to that of other two nanocomposites. The measurements have shown that the magnitude of RL of microwaves depends strongly on the structure of MWCNTs used in the composite. Furthermore, the effect of synthesis route followed for the manufacturing of nanocomposite on its electrical conductivity and microwave absorbing properties is also investigated; three different approaches were followed to manufacture CNT/epoxy nanocomposites from longer CNTs (200 μm).

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Saib, A., Bednarz, L., Daussin, R., Bailly, C., Lou, X., Thomassin, J., Pagnoulle, C., Detrembleur, C., Jerome, R., and Huynen, I., 2006, “Carbon Nanotube Composites for Broadband Microwave Absorbing Materials,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 54(6), pp. 2745–2754. [CrossRef]
Park, K. Y., Lee, S. E., Kim, C. G., and Han, J. H., 2007, “Application of MWNT-Added Glass Fabric/Epoxy Composites to Electromagnetic Wave Shielding Enclosure,” Compos. Struct., 81(3), pp. 401–406. [CrossRef]
Qin, F., and Brosseau, C., 2012, “A Review and Analysis of Microwave Absorption in Polymer Composites Filled With Carbonaceous Particle,” J. Appl. Phys., 111(6), p. 061301. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z., and Guang-Lin, Z., 2013, “Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbon Nanotubes-Epoxy Composites in a Frequency Range of 2–20 GHz,” J. Compos. Mater., 3(2), pp. 17–23. [CrossRef]
Dinesh, K., Agrawal, 1998, “Microwave Processing of Ceramics,” Curr. Opinion in Solid State and Mater. Sci., 3(5), pp. 480–485. [CrossRef]
Martin, C. A., Sandler, J. K. W., Windle, A. H., Schwarz, M. K., Bauhofer, W., Schulte, K., and Shaffer, M. S. P., 2005, “Electric Field-Induced Aligned Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube Networks in Epoxy Composites,” Polymer, 46(3), pp. 877–886. [CrossRef]
Sandler, J. K. W., Kirk, J. E., Kinloch, I. A., Shaffer, M. S. P., and Windle, A. H., 2003, “Ultra-Low Electrical Percolation Threshold in Carbon-Nanotube-Epoxy Composites,” Polymer, 44(19), pp. 5893–5899. [CrossRef]
Bai, J. B., and Allaoui, A., 2003, “Effect of the Length and the Aggregate Size of MWNTs on the Improvement Efficiency of the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites—Experimental Investigation,” Composites, Part A, 34(8), pp. 689–694. [CrossRef]
Grossiord, N., Loos, J., Regev, O., and Koning, C. E., 2006, “Toolbox for Dispersing Carbon Nanotubes Into Polymers to Get Conductive Nanocomposites,” Chem. Mater., 18(5), pp. 1089–1099. [CrossRef]
Li, J., Ma, P. C., Chow, W., To, C. K., Tang, B. Z., and Kim, J. K., 2007, “Correlations Between Percolation Threshold, Dispersion State, and Aspect Ratio of Carbon Nanotubes,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 17(16), pp. 3207–3215. [CrossRef]
Pecastaings, G., Delhaes, P., Derre, A., Saadaoui, H., Carmona, F., and Cui, S., 2004, “Role of Interfacial Effects in Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Nanocomposite Behavior,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 4(7), pp. 838–843. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kenig, S., and Akovali, G., eds., 2001, Handbook of Composite Fabrication, 1st ed., iSmithers Rapra Publishing, Shawbury, Shrewsbury, UK.
Baker, A. A., Dutton, S., and Kelly, D., 2004, Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures, 2nd ed., American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA.
Mitchell, C. A., Bahr, J. L., Arepalli, S., Tour, J. M., and Krishnamoorti, R., 2002, “Dispersion of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes in Polystyrene,” Macromolecules, 35(23), pp. 8825–8830. [CrossRef]
Thakre, P. R., and Bisrat, Y., 2010, “Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Epoxy Nanocomposites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 116(1), pp. 191–202. [CrossRef]
Santos, A. S., Leite, T. D. N., Furtado, C. A., Welter, C., Pardini, L. C., and Silva, G. G., 2008, “Morphology, Thermal Expansion, and Electrical Conductivity of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Composites,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 108(2), pp. 979–986. [CrossRef]
Zilli, D., Goyanes, S., Escobar, M. M., Chiliotte, C., Bekeris, V., and Cukierman, A. L., 2007, “Comparative Analysis of Electric, Magnetic, and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Matrix Composites With Different Contents of Multiple Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Polym. Compos., 28(5), pp. 612–617. [CrossRef]
Bryning, M. B., Islam, M. F., Kikkawa, J. M., and Yodh, A. G., 2005, “Very Low Conductivity Threshold in Bulk Isotropic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube–Epoxy Composites,” Adv. Mater., 17(9), pp. 1186–1191. [CrossRef]
Schueler, R., Petermann, J., Schulte, K., and Wentzel, H., 1997, “Agglomeration and Electrical Percolation Behavior of Carbon Black Dispersed in Epoxy Resin,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 63(13), pp. 1741–1746. [CrossRef]
Park, S.-H., Theilmann, P. T., Asbeck, P. M., and Prabhakar, R. B., 2009, “Enhanced Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Through the Use of Functionalized Carbon-Nanotube-Reactive Polymer Composites,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., Paper No. TNANO-00013-2009. [CrossRef]
Yang, R. B., Kuo, W. S., and Lai, H. C., 2014, “Effect of Carbon Nanotube Dispersion on the Complex Permittivity and Absorption of Nanocomposites in 2–18 GHz Ranges,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 131(21), p. 40963. [CrossRef]
Sun, X.-G., Gao, M., Li, C., and Wu, Y., 2011, “Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Carbon Nanotubes,” Carbon Nanotubes-Synthesis, Characterization, Applications, S.Yellampalli, ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. [CrossRef]
Lanticse, L. J., Tanabe, Y., Matsui, K., Kaburagi, Y., Suda, K., and Hoteida, M., 2006, “Shear-Induced Preferential Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Resulted in Anisotropic Electrical Conductivity of Polymer Composites,” Carbon, 44(14), pp. 3078–3086. [CrossRef]
Wichmann, M. H. G., Sumfleth, J., Fiedler, B., Gojny, F. H., and Schulte, K., 2006, “Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Epoxy Composites Produced by a Masterbatch Process,” Mech. Compos. Mater., 42(5), pp. 395–406. [CrossRef]
Li, J., Ma, P. C., Chow, W., To, C. K., and Tang, B. Z., Kim, J. K., 2007, “Correlations Between Percolation Threshold, Dispersion State, and Aspect Ratio of Carbon Nanotubes,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 17(16), pp. 3207–3215. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) DC electrical conductivity and (b) imaginary part (ε) of complex permittivity measurements of nanocomposites prepared from shorter, longer, and NH2 functionalized MWCNTs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The RL measurements for the three sets of nanocomposites prepared with long, short, and functionalized MWCNTs with 1.0 wt.% loadings in the matrix

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

DC electrical conductivity measurements of the nanocomposites prepared by using the three different processing methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a)–(c) The RL measurements for the 1.0 wt.% loadings of long MWCNT nanocomposites prepared with three different processing methods and (d) schematic showing the possibility of glass fiber cloth wetting using method B (above) and M (below)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a)–(c) Scanning electron micrographs of nanocomposites fracture surface prepared with method: (a) M, (b) H, (c) B revealing the state of aggregation and dispersion, and (d) SEM image of as-received long MWCNTs

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In