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Research Papers

Nanotopographic Biomaterials for Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
Weiyi Qian

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
New York University,
Brooklyn, NY 11201
e-mail: wq262@nyu.edu

Yan Zhang

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
New York University,
Brooklyn, NY 11201
e-mail: yz2626@nyu.edu

Andrew Gordon

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
New York University,
Brooklyn, NY 11201
e-mail: ag4316@nyu.edu

Weiqiang Chen

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
New York University,
Brooklyn, NY 11201
e-mail: wchen@nyu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 13, 2015; final manuscript received April 20, 2015; published online June 16, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jianping Fu.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 5(4), 040901 (Nov 01, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: NANO-15-1017; doi: 10.1115/1.4030420 History: Received March 13, 2015; Revised April 20, 2015; Online June 16, 2015

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) shed from the primary tumor mass and circulating in the bloodstream of patients are believed to be vital to understand of cancer metastasis and progression. Capture and release of CTCs for further enumeration and molecular characterization holds the key for early cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapy evaluation. However, detection of CTCs is challenging due to their rarity, heterogeneity and the increasing demand of viable CTCs for downstream biological analysis. Nanotopographic biomaterial-based microfluidic systems are emerging as promising tools for CTC capture with improved capture efficiency, purity, throughput and retrieval of viable CTCs. This review offers a brief overview of the recent advances in this field, including CTC detection technologies based on nanotopographic biomaterials and relevant nanofabrication methods. Additionally, the possible intracellular mechanisms of the intrinsic nanotopography sensitive responses that lead to the enhanced CTC capture are explored.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Nanotopography-enhanced capture of CTCs in microfluidic chip. (a) Nanopillar array was applied to be the substrate of microfluidics chip and was functionalized with antibody, (b) label-free nanorough surface was embedded in the microfluidics chip, (c) nanofiber-embedded microfluidics chip functionalized with aptamer, and (d) functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets in microfluidic chip.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Integrins mediate cell adhesion with ECM. (a) Integrin activation triggering a shift from the low-affinity conformation (bent with a closed head) toward the intermediate affinity (extended with closed head) and high affinity (extended with open head) conformation, (b) endocytosis of β1 integrin heterodimers in their active conformation near the front of the cell, and form early endosomes, and (c) integrins are recycled to the membrane and reassemble a new FA.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Nanotopographic substrates preparation methods. (a) EBL is used to fabricate well controlled nanopattern with high resolution, (b) electrospinning is the most often used technique to fabricate nanofibers, (c) RIE are capable of generating nanotopographic substrates with different nanoroughness, and (d) nano-imprinting can be used to achieve high resolution nanofabrication over large surface.

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