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Expert View

Scaffold-Based or Scaffold-Free Bioprinting: Competing or Complementing Approaches?

[+] Author and Article Information
Ibrahim T. Ozbolat

Professor
Biomanufacturing Laboratory,
The University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: ibrahim-ozbolat@uiowa.edu

Manuscript received April 12, 2015; final manuscript received April 16, 2015; published online September 29, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Abraham Quan Wang.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 6(2), 024701 (Sep 29, 2015) Paper No: NANO-15-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4030414 History: Received April 12, 2015

Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate artificial tissues and organs through additive manufacturing of living cells in a tissues-specific pattern by stacking them layer by layer. Two major approaches have been proposed in the literature: bioprinting cells in a scaffold matrix to support cell proliferation and growth, and bioprinting cells without using a scaffold structure. Despite great progress, particularly in scaffold-based approaches along with recent significant attempts, printing large-scale tissues and organs is still elusive. This paper demonstrates recent significant attempts in scaffold-based and scaffold-free tissue printing approaches, discusses the advantages and limitations of both approaches, and presents a conceptual framework for bioprinting of scale-up tissue by complementing the benefits of these approaches.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scaffold-based and scaffold-free bioprinting technologies: (a) extrusion-based bioprinting, (b) droplet-based bioprinting, (c) laser-based bioprinting, (d) bioprinting tissue spheroids, and (e) bioprinting cell pellet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Hybrid bioprinting of scaffold-based vascular constructs in tandem with scaffold-free parenchyma tissue, where fusion, tissue remodeling, and self-assembly of tissue strands take place and sprouting can take place between the macrovascular network and capillaries in tissue strands. This concept generalizes the tissue used; however, for different tissue types, modifications on the system would be essential.

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