In this paper, we present the experimental validation of the detailed models developed for the flexural motion of piezoelectric T-beam actuators. With a T-shaped cross-section, and bottom and top flange and web electrodes, a cantilevered beam can bend in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions upon actuation. Analytical models predict the tip displacement and blocking force in both directions. Mechanical dicing and flange electrode deposition was used to fabricate six meso-scale T-beam prototypes. The T-beams were experimentally tested for in-plane and out-of-plane displacements, and out-of-plane blocking force. The analytical models closely predict the T-beam displacement and blocking force performance. A nondimensional analytical model predict that all T-beam designs for both in-plane and out-of-plane actuation, regardless of scale, have nondimensional displacement and blocking force equal to nondimensional voltage. The results from experiments are favorably compared with this theoretical prediction.

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