where *V*_{C} is the cell volume, *A* is the surface area of the cell, *B* is the cooling rates, *R* is the universal gas constant (8.314 J mol^{−1} K^{−1}), Δ*H*_{f} is the molar heat of fusion of water (6016.52 J mol^{−1}), *ϕ*_{s} is the dissociation constant for salt (two for NaCl), *n*_{s} is the molar amount of intracellular salt (*n*_{s} = (*V*_{0} − *V*_{b}) × *c*_{s}, *c*_{s} is the molarity of salt in saline (0.142 M)), *V*_{b} is the osmotic inactive volume of the cell, *V*_{s} is the salt volume of the cell based on the assumption that only one water molecule is in the hydration shell associated with one NaCl molecule [24] (*V*_{s} = *n*_{s} × (*ν*_{s} + *ν*_{w}), *ν*_{s} and *ν*_{w} are specific volumes of NaCl (26.99 ml mol^{−1}) and water (18 ml mol^{−1}), respectively, *T*_{R} is the reference temperature (273.15 K), *L*_{p} is the water permeability of cell plasma membrane, *L*_{pg} is the hydraulic conductivity of cell plasma membrane at *T*_{R}, *E*_{lp} is the activation energy for transmembrane water transport of cells. Among these parameters, *L*_{pg}, *E*_{lp}, and *V*_{b} are to be determined by fitting the model to experimental data.