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Research Papers: Fractal Engineering and Biomedicine

Numerical Analysis of Dental Caries Effect on the Biomechanical Behavior of the Periodontal System

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Merdji

Laboratory of Mechanical Physical of Materials,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sidi Bel Abbes University,
Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria;
Medical Engineering Research Group,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
Anglia Ruskin University Bishop Hall Lane,
Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK

Noureddine Della, Ali Benaissa

Faculty of Science and Technology,
Mascara University,
Mascara 29000, Algeria

Bel-Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra, Boualem Serier

Laboratory of Mechanical Physical of Materials,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sidi Bel Abbes University,
Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria

Rajshree Mootanah

Medical Engineering Research Group,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
Anglia Ruskin University Bishop Hall Lane,
Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK

Iyad Muslih

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Applied Science University,
Amman 11931, Jordan

Osama M. Mukdadi

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV 26506;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science,
Technology and Research,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: sam.mukdadi@mail.wvu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 16, 2015; final manuscript received January 20, 2016; published online March 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Charalabos Doumanidis.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 6(3), 031004 (Mar 17, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: NANO-15-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4032689 History: Received August 16, 2015; Revised January 20, 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dental caries on the stability of the periodontal system. This study presents a numerical analysis performed with three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) method to evaluate stresses in the bone surrounding the tooth with dynamic mastication combined loadings. In this work, we present a comparative study on infected and healthy periodontal systems. The infected tooth was modeled and a caries defect was introduced to the tooth coronal part. The infected tooth was evaluated and equivalent von Mises interface stress values were obtained for comparison with the ones exhibited by the healthy tooth. Our results by 3D FE analysis indicated that maximum stresses occurred primarily at the cervical level of root and alveolar bone. In the cortical bone, the stress value was greater in infected system (21.641 MPa) than in healthy system (15.752 MPa), i.e., a 37.4% increase. However, in the trabecular bone we observed only 1.6% increase in the equivalent stress values for the infected tooth model. Stress concentration at the cervical level may cause abnormal bone remodeling or bone loss, resulting loss of tooth attachment or bone damage. Our findings showed that decayed single-rooted teeth are more vulnerable to apical root resorption than healthy teeth. The numerical method presented in this study not only can aid the elucidation of the biomechanics of teeth infected by caries but also can be implemented to investigate the effectiveness of new advanced restorative materials and protocols.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Three-dimensional geometric model of the mandible

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Fig. 2

Components of dental systems for a healthy and infected tooth: (a) Enamel, (b) dentin, (c) pulp, and (d) PDL

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Fig. 3

Boundary conditions and applied load type

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Fig. 4

Meshing of the tooth and interface of ligament–bone showing how the elements in the bone increase in size as the distance increases from the interface

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Fig. 5

von Mises stresses distribution in health and infected teeth

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Fig. 6

Stress distribution in the alveolar bone: (a) Healthy system and (b) infected system

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Fig. 7

The paths of tooth–bone interface via the PDL

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Fig. 8

Bone interfacial stresses: (a) Cervical path, (b) bucco-lingual path, and (c) disto-mesial path

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