Research Paper

Perspective in Nanoneural Electronic Implants With Wireless Power-Feed and Sensory Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Uhn Lee

 Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon 405-760, Koreauhn@ghil.com

Kyo D. Song

 Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504ksong@nsu.edu

Yeonjoon Park

 George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052yeonjoon.park-1@nasa.gov

Vijay K. Varadan

 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701vjvesm@uark.edu

Sang H. Choi

 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199sang.h.choi@nasa.gov

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 1(2), 021007 (May 06, 2010) (14 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001413 History: Received February 04, 2010; Revised February 17, 2010; Published May 06, 2010

New medical device technology is essential for diagnosing, monitoring, and curing wide spectrum of diseases, anomalies, and inflictions. For neural applications, currently available devices are generally limited to either a curing or a probing function. In this paper, we review the technology requirements for a new neural probe and cure device technology currently under development. The concept of the probe-pin device that integrates the probes for neurochemistry, neuroelectricity, temperature, and pressure into a single embodiment with a wireless power transmission was designed for the purpose of deep brain feedback stimulation (DBFS) with in situ neural monitoring. The probe considered for monitoring neurochemistry is a microspectrometer. The feature and size of the microspectrometer are defined for the DBFS device. Two types of wireless power transmission technology were studied for the DBFS device operation. The test results of pig skin showed that both power transmission technologies demonstrated the feasibility of power feed through human tissue.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

An electrode and batteries for DBS controlling the motor action of a PD patient

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Figure 2

Implementation scheme of the wireless power and signal feed back by PPD for NEI

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Figure 3

Dipole rectenna built on flexible membrane and its equivalent circuit

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Figure 4

An array of dipole rectennas with a PPD couples with microwave to generate DC power for DBS

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Figure 5

A wireless power receiver with a PPD is implanted for DBS. The wireless power receiver couples with incident microwave field.

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Figure 6

Schematic diagram of the NEI at the tip of PPD

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Figure 7

A magnetic induction coils with a PPD couples with a rotating magnetic field for DC power for DBS

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Figure 8

Schematic diagram of wireless power transmission to PPD. When rectenna array couples with incident microwave, the DC power is generated on a thin-film rectenna array plate that is placed just under head skin tissue. The power is multiplexed for feeding power for DBS and sensors at the tip of PPD.

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Figure 9

Schematic diagram of wireless power transmission to PPD. When rotating magnetic fluxes cut through induction coil, the power is generated on a thin-film induction coil plate that is placed just under head skin tissue. The power is multiplexed for feeding power for DBS and sensors at the tip of PPD.

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Figure 10

Wireless power and logic circuit unit using a low power microwave

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Figure 11

Schematic diagram of the neural nanowire implant on silicon using nanowires and cultured neurites

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Figure 12

Wireless module and antenna on hat

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Figure 13

Dipole rectenna array

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Figure 14

Experimental setup for rectenna performance measurement

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Figure 15

Output voltage of polyimide rectenna versus distances from the horn

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Figure 16

Output current profiles from polyimide rectenna along with distances from injection horn

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Figure 17

Output power of polyimide rectenna versus distances

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Figure 18

Output voltage of polyimide rectenna through various thickness of polyurethane at 100 cm from the injection horn

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Figure 19

Output voltage captured by a rectenna array through a pig skin (1.7–2.2 mm thick)

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Figure 20

Output power measured by a rectenna array with and without pig skin

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Figure 21

(a) Membrane inductor coil and (b) transducer

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Figure 22

Schematic of the neuron architecture at the cerebral cortex and the comparison of the mechanism of cortical surface recording using QD nanoelectrode arrays versus current technologies of intracortical recording using long MEAs. Cortex architecture is adapted from Ref. 14.

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Figure 23

QD chemical/voltage/pressure sensor on PPD

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Figure 24

QD or NSS populated biosensor head

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Figure 25

(Top) Fabricated zone plate as microring grating, and (bottom) color dispersion of microring grating near a focal point (25)

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Figure 26

Design—I: Microring grating spectrometer for parallel lights (25)

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Figure 27

(a) SEM image (stage tile=52 deg) of half transparent ring grating based on zone plate, and (b) optical microscope image of the same with a light source in transmission mode

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Figure 28

(a) Mathematical simulation of photon intensities with three wavelengths (red: 630 nm, green: 532 nm, blue: 450 nm) on the optical axis (graph’s x-axis is real optical distance Z); (b) measured microspectrometer spectrum (x-axis is in wavelength) from mixed yellow light (inset picture) of red (630 nm) and green (532 nm) lasers

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Figure 29

Photon intensity simulation on optical axis, dotted green line=half transparent grating with λ=532 nm, solid green line=full transparent grating with step height difference, and red and blue lines indicates 630 nm and 450 nm photons with various phase matching errors

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Figure 30

Generalized view of microspectrometer for medical and space applications



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