Research Papers

Enhanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Dose Using Magnetic Nanoparticles During HIFU Thermal Ablation—An In-Vitro Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Seyed Ahmad Reza Dibaji, Marwan F. Al-Rjoub

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Cincinnati,
2600 Clifton Avenue,
Cincinnati, OH 45221

Matthew R. Myers

Division of Solid and Fluid Mechanics,
Center for Devices and Radiological Health,
U. S. Food and Drug Administration,
10903 New Hampshire Avenue,
Silver Spring, MD 20993

Rupak K. Banerjee

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
College of Engineering and Applied Science,
University of Cincinnati,
598 Rhodes Hall,
P.O. Box 210072,
Cincinnati, OH 45221
e-mail: rupak.banerjee@uc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 20, 2014; final manuscript received March 19, 2014; published online April 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Sumanta Acharya. This material is declared a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 4(4), 040902 (Apr 15, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: NANO-14-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4027340 History: Received January 20, 2014; Revised March 19, 2014

Avoiding collateral damage to healthy tissues during the high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of malignant tumors is one of the major challenges for effective thermal therapy. Such collateral damage can originate out of the need for using higher acoustic powers to treat deep seated or highly vascularized tumors. The objective of this study is to assess the utility of using magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) during HIFU procedures to locally enhance heating at low powers, thereby reducing the likelihood of collateral thermal damage and undesired destruction due to cavitation. Tissue phantoms with 0% (control), 1% and 3% mNPs concentrations by volume were fabricated. Each tissue phantom was embedded with four thermocouples (TCs) and sonicated using transducer acoustic powers of 5.15 W, 9.17 W, and 14.26 W. The temperature profiles during the heating and cooling periods were recorded for each embedded TC. The measured transient temperature profiles were used for thermal-dose calculations. The increase in the concentration of mNPs in the tissue phantoms, from 0% to 3%, resulted in the rise in the peak temperatures for all the TCs for each acoustic power. The thermal dose also increased with the rise in the concentration of mNPs in the tissue phantoms. For the highest applied acoustic power (14.26 W), the peak temperature at TC 1 (T1) in tissue phantoms with 1% and 3% mNPs concentrations increased (with respect to tissue phantom with 0% (control) mNPs concentration) by 1.59× and 2.09×, respectively. For an acoustic power of 14.26 W, the time required to achieve cellular necrosis as defined by a 240 equivalent min thermal dose was approximately 75 s in the absence of mNPs, 14 s for the 1% concentration, and 8 s for the 3% concentration. Magnetic nanoparticles have the potential to significantly reduce the time for HIFU thermal-ablation procedures. They can also decrease the likelihood of collateral damage by the propagating beam in HIFU procedures by reducing the intensity required to achieve cellular necrosis.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of tissue phantom with four embedded TCs

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Fig. 2

Micro-CT image of tissue phantom with mNPs concentration of (a) 0%, (b) 1%, and (c) 3%. The initial assessments with Micro-CT on tissue phantoms were conducted in collaboration with Dr. Lisa Lemen and Mrs. Kathleen Lasance in Vontz Core Imaging Laboratory at the University of Cincinnati.

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Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the experimental setup showing the HIFU transducer aligned with the tissue phantom in degassed water medium. (b) Schematic of the HIFU beam positioning on T1 junction.

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Fig. 4

Temperature profiles at T1 in tissue phantoms with 0%, 1%, and 3% mNPs concentrations using acoustic power of (a) 5.15 W, (b) 9.17 W, and (c) 14.26 W

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Fig. 5

Temperature profiles at T2 in tissue phantoms with 0%, 1%, and 3% mNPs concentrations using acoustic power of (a) 5.15 W, (b) 9.17 W, and (c) 14.26 W

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Fig. 6

Temperature profiles at T3 in tissue phantoms with 0%, 1%, and 3% mNPs concentrations using acoustic power of (a) 5.15 W, (b) 9.17 W, and (c) 14.26 W

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Fig. 7

Temperature profiles at T4 in tissue phantoms with 0%, 1%, and 3% mNPs concentrations using acoustic power of (a) 5.15 W, (b) 9.17 W, and (c) 14.26 W

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Fig. 8

Thermal doses at (a) T1, (b) T2, (c) T3, and (d) T4 in tissue phantoms with 0%, 1%, and 3% mNPs concentrations using acoustic powers of 5.15 W, 9.17 W, and 14.26 W



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