Research Papers: Fractal Engineering and Biomedicine

Numerical Analysis of Dental Caries Effect on the Biomechanical Behavior of the Periodontal System

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Merdji

Laboratory of Mechanical Physical of Materials,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sidi Bel Abbes University,
Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria;
Medical Engineering Research Group,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
Anglia Ruskin University Bishop Hall Lane,
Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK

Noureddine Della, Ali Benaissa

Faculty of Science and Technology,
Mascara University,
Mascara 29000, Algeria

Bel-Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra, Boualem Serier

Laboratory of Mechanical Physical of Materials,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Sidi Bel Abbes University,
Sidi Bel Abbes 22000, Algeria

Rajshree Mootanah

Medical Engineering Research Group,
Faculty of Science and Technology,
Anglia Ruskin University Bishop Hall Lane,
Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK

Iyad Muslih

Department of Mechanical and
Industrial Engineering,
Applied Science University,
Amman 11931, Jordan

Osama M. Mukdadi

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
West Virginia University,
Morgantown, WV 26506;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Khalifa University of Science,
Technology and Research,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
e-mail: sam.mukdadi@mail.wvu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 16, 2015; final manuscript received January 20, 2016; published online March 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Charalabos Doumanidis.

J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med 6(3), 031004 (Mar 17, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: NANO-15-1066; doi: 10.1115/1.4032689 History: Received August 16, 2015; Revised January 20, 2016

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dental caries on the stability of the periodontal system. This study presents a numerical analysis performed with three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) method to evaluate stresses in the bone surrounding the tooth with dynamic mastication combined loadings. In this work, we present a comparative study on infected and healthy periodontal systems. The infected tooth was modeled and a caries defect was introduced to the tooth coronal part. The infected tooth was evaluated and equivalent von Mises interface stress values were obtained for comparison with the ones exhibited by the healthy tooth. Our results by 3D FE analysis indicated that maximum stresses occurred primarily at the cervical level of root and alveolar bone. In the cortical bone, the stress value was greater in infected system (21.641 MPa) than in healthy system (15.752 MPa), i.e., a 37.4% increase. However, in the trabecular bone we observed only 1.6% increase in the equivalent stress values for the infected tooth model. Stress concentration at the cervical level may cause abnormal bone remodeling or bone loss, resulting loss of tooth attachment or bone damage. Our findings showed that decayed single-rooted teeth are more vulnerable to apical root resorption than healthy teeth. The numerical method presented in this study not only can aid the elucidation of the biomechanics of teeth infected by caries but also can be implemented to investigate the effectiveness of new advanced restorative materials and protocols.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Sischo, L. , and Broder, H. L. , 2011, “ Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: What, Why, How, and Future Implications,” J. Dent. Res., 90(11), pp. 1264–1270. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ng, S. K. S. , and Leung, W. K. , 2006, “ Oral Health-Related Quality of Life and Periodontal Status,” Community Dent. Oral Epidemiol., 34(2), pp. 114–122. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gerritsen, A. E. , Allen, P. F. , Witter, D. J. , Bronkhorst, E. M. , and Creugers, N. H. J. , 2010, “ Tooth Loss and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Health Qual. Life Outcomes, 8(1), pp. 126–131. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Joshipura, K. J. , Rimm, E. B. , Douglass, C. W. , Trichopoulos, D. , Ascherio, A. , and Willett, W. C. , 1996, “ Poor Oral Health and Coronary Heart Disease,” J. Dent. Res., 75(9), pp. 1631–1636. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kaur, G. , Holtfreter, B. , Rathmann, W. G. , Schwahn, C. , Wallaschofski, H. , Schipf, S. , Nauck, M. , and Kocher, T. , 2009, “ Association Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes With Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss,” J. Clin. Periodontol., 36(9), pp. 765–774. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Patel, M. H. , Kumar, J. V. , and Moss, M. E. , 2013, “ Diabetes and Tooth Loss an Analysis of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2004,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 144(5), pp. 478–485. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012, “ National Oral Health Surveillance System: Oral Health Indicators,” http://www.cdc.gov/cdi
Larsen, M. J. , and Fejerskov, O. , 1989, “ Chemical and Structural Challenges in Remineralization of Dental Enamel Lesions,” Scand. J. Dent. Res., 97(4), pp. 285–296. [PubMed]
Bowden, G. H. W. , 1990, “ Microbiology of Root Surface Caries in Humans,” J. Dent. Res., 69(5), pp. 1205–1210. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mahmoud, A. M. , Ngan, P. , Crout, R. , and Mukdadi, O. M. , 2010, “ High-Resolution 3D Ultrasound Jawbone Surface Imaging for Diagnosis of Periodontal Bony Defects: An In Vitro Study,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 38(11), pp. 3409–3422. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Goldman, H. , and Cohen, D. , 1958, “ The Infra-Bony Pocket: Classification and Treatment,” J. Periodontol., 29(4), pp. 272–291. [CrossRef]
Chai, H. , Lee, J. J. W. , Constantino, P. J. , Lucas, P. W. , and Lawn, B. R. , 2009, “ Remarkable Resilience of Teeth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 106(18), pp. 7289–7293. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Currey, J. D. , 1964, “ Three Analogies to Explain the Mechanical Properties of Bone,” Biorheology, 2(1), pp. 1–10.
Demarco, T. J. , and Paine, S. , 1974, “ Mandibular Dimensional Change,” J. Prosthet. Dent., 31(5), pp. 482–485. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Grippo, J. O. , Simring, M. , and Schreiner, S. , 2004, “ Attrition, Abrasion, Corrosion and Abfraction Revisited,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 135(8), pp. 1109–1118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wood, I. , Jawad, Z. , Paisley, C. , and Brunton, P. , 2008, “ Non-Carious Cervical Tooth Surface Loss: A Literature Review,” J. Dent., 36(10), pp. 759–766. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ammar, H. H. , Ngan, P. , Crout, R. J. , Mucino, V. H. , and Mukdadi, O. M. , 2011, “ Three-Dimensional Modeling and Finite Element Analysis in Treatment Planning for Orthodontic Tooth Movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 139(1), pp. e59–e71. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lee, W. C. , and Eakle, W. S. , 1984, “ Possible Role of Tensile-Stress in the Etiology of Cervical Erosive Lesions of Teeth,” J. Prosthet. Dent., 52(3), pp. 374–380. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Merdji, A. , Mootanah, R. , Bouiadjra, B. A. B. , Benaissa, A. , Aminallah, L. , Chikh, E. O. , and Mukdadi, S. , 2013, “ Stress Analysis in Single Molar Tooth,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C-Mater. Biol. Appl., 33(2), pp. 691–698. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Provatidis, C. G. , 2000, “ A Comparative FEM-Study of Tooth Mobility Using Isotropic and Anisotropic Models of the Periodontal Ligament,” Med. Eng. Phys., 22(5), pp. 359–370. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Selna, L. G. , Shillingburg, H. T. , and Kerr, P. A. , 1975, “ Finite-Element Analysis of Dental Structures—Axisymmetric and Plane Stress Idealizations,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 9(2), pp. 237–252. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lin, C. L. , Chang, C. H. , Wang, C. H. , Ko, C. C. , and Lee, H. E. , 2001, “ Numerical Investigation of the Factors Affecting Interfacial Stresses in an MOD Restored Tooth by Auto-Meshed Finite Element Method,” J. Oral Rehabil., 28(6), pp. 517–525. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Qian, H. H. , Chen, J. , and Katona, T. R. , 2001, “ The Influence of PDL Principal Fibers in a 3-Dimensional Analysis of Orthodontic Tooth Movement,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 120(3), pp. 272–279. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Thresher, R. W. , and Saito, G. E. , 1973, “ The Stress Analysis of Human Teeth,” J. Biomech., 6(5), pp. 443–449. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Miyashita, E. R. , Mattos, B. S. C. , Noritomi, P. Y. , and Navarro, H. , 2012, “ Finite Element Analysis of Maxillary Bone Stress Caused by Aramany Class IV Obturator Prostheses,” J. Prosthet. Dent., 107(5), pp. 336–342. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rubin, C. , Krishnamurthy, N. , Capilouto, E. , and Yi, H. , 1983, “ Stress Analysis of the Human Tooth Using a 3-Dimensional Finite-Element Model,” J. Dent. Res., 62(2), pp. 82–86. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Geng, J. P. , Tan, K. B. C. , and Liu, G. R. , 2001, “ Application of Finite Element Analysis in Implant Dentistry: A Review of the Literature,” J. Prosthet. Dent., 85(6), pp. 585–598. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jasmine, M. I. F. , Yezdani, A. A. , Tajir, F. , and Venu, R. M. , 2012, “ Analysis of Stress in Bone and Microimplants During En-Masse Retraction of Maxillary and Mandibular Anterior Teeth With Different Insertion Angulations: A 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis Study,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 141(1), pp. 71–80. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, Y. R. , Du, W. , Zhou, X. D. , and Yu, H. Y. , 2014, “ Review of Research on the Mechanical Properties of the Human Tooth,” Int. J. Oral Sci., 6(2), pp. 61–69. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Beer, F. P. , Johnston, E. R. , DeWolf, J. T. , and Mazurek, D. F. , 2014, Mechanics of Materials, 7th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, New York.
Sameshima, G. T. , and Sinclair, P. M. , 2001, “ Predicting and Preventing Root Resorption: Part II. Treatment Factors,” Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop., 119(5), pp. 511–515. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yoshida, N. , Koga, Y. , Peng, C. L. , Tanaka, E. , and Kobayashi, K. , 2001, “ In Vivo Measurement of the Elastic Modulus of the Human Periodontal Ligament,” Med. Eng. Phys., 23(8), pp. 567–572. [CrossRef] [PubMed]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Three-dimensional geometric model of the mandible

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Components of dental systems for a healthy and infected tooth: (a) Enamel, (b) dentin, (c) pulp, and (d) PDL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Boundary conditions and applied load type

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Meshing of the tooth and interface of ligament–bone showing how the elements in the bone increase in size as the distance increases from the interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

von Mises stresses distribution in health and infected teeth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stress distribution in the alveolar bone: (a) Healthy system and (b) infected system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The paths of tooth–bone interface via the PDL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Bone interfacial stresses: (a) Cervical path, (b) bucco-lingual path, and (c) disto-mesial path



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In